Browsing tag: mikroorganizmy

Krezole a drobnoustroje środowiska glebowego

Cresols and the microorganisms of the soil environment
M. Zaborowska

1. Wstęp. 2. Naturalne i antropogeniczne źródła krezoli w środowisku. 3. Toksyczność krezoli. 4. Drobnoustroje uczestniczące w rozkładzie krezoli. 5. Tlenowy katabolizm krezoli. 6. Beztlenowy katabolizm krezoli. 7. Mikrobiologiczna degradacja krezoli w środowisku glebowym. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Phenolic compounds, including cresols, in the soil environment are a result of natural processes such as: biodegradation of lignins and tannins, and anthropogenic activity. Cresols are present in disinfectants as well as in the wastewater from chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, paper and textile industry. They are also used in the production of insecticides, herbicides, medicines and antioxidants and have been classified as hazardous substances. Exposure of microorganisms to cresols can bring about changes in the structure of their cell membranes, resulting in their growth inhibition and cell lysis. However, there is still an untapped bioremediation potential in microorganisms, which are able to participate in the catabolism of cresols, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The typical strategies of the aerobic degradation of cresols include the use of monooxygenase and dioxygenase enzymes. Thanks to these enzymes, atoms of molecular oxygen initiate fission of the aromatic ring structure. Under anaerobic conditions, the mechanisms of cresol decomposition  currently focus on the addition of fumarate, hydroxylation or carboxylation. The effectiveness of microorganisms in the degradation of cresols is not only due to their occurrence in consortia. They are also effective as single strains. The only controversial aspect involves using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or their genes in the bioaugmentation process. This is because they are strictly selected and target only specific substrates. Due to this, they do not compete with autochthonous microorganisms undergoing natural selection.

1. Introduction. 2. Natural and anthropogenic sources of cresols in the environment. 3. Toxicity of cresols. 4. The microorganisms participating in the distribution of cresols. 5. Aerobic catabolism of cresols. 6. Anaerobic catabolism of cresols. 7. Microbial degradation of cresols in the soil environment. 8. Summary

Rekultywacja gleb skażonych metalami ciężkimi metodą fitostabilizacji wspomaganej

Recultivation of heavy metal-contaminated soils using aided phytostabilization
D. Wasilkowski, A. Mrozik

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Strategie tolerancji metali ciężkich u mikroorganizmów i roślin. 3. Koncepcja fitostabilizacji wspomaganej. 4. Aktywność mikrobiologiczna gleby w warunkach fitostabilizacji wspomaganej. 5. Wskaźniki mikrobiologiczne a jakość gleby. 6. Przykłady in situ fitostabilizacji wspomaganej. 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The main anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in the environment are mining and smelting, refining and chemical industry, industrial and municipal wastes, transport as well as fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture. Among all heavy metals, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn are of major environmental and human health concern. The high toxicity of heavy metals causes the need to remove them from the contaminated soil using minimally invasive remediation solutions, called gentle remediation options (GRO). One of the attractive methods to reduce the labile fractions and toxicity of heavy metals in soil seems to be aided phytostabilization. It is a combination of phytostabilization using plants tolerant to trace metals and stabilizing soil against erosion with the initial chemical immobilization achieved by adding various organic and inorganic additives. The potential toxicity of trace elements depends on their specific form present in the environment, their reactivity, mobility, concentration and their availability to living organisms. The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is constantly changing and depends on different physicochemical, biological and environmental parameters. Due to the fact that microorganisms respond quickly to the presence of stressors in the environment, the changes in metabolic activity, size and structure can be used as good indicators of the effectiveness of applied remediation technology for cleaning up contaminated sites and ecosystem quality.

1. Introduction. 2. Tolerance strategies in microorganisms and plants. 3. Concept of aided phytostabilization. 4. Microbial activity of soil under aided phytostabilization. 5. Microbial indexes and soil quality. 6. Examples of in situ aided phytostabilization. 7. Summary

Mikroorganizmy w usuwaniu toksycznych barwników przemysłowych

Microbial elimination of toxic industrialdyes
A. Góralczyk, A. Jasińska, J. Długoński

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Barwniki syntetyczne – budowa, podział i zastosowanie. 3. Barwniki a środowisko. 4. Metody usuwania barwników syntetycznych ze ścieków. 4.1. Metody chemiczne i fizyczne. 4.2. Metody biologiczne. 4.2.1. Biosorpcja. 4.2.2. Bioakumulacja. 4.2.3. Biodegradacja. 4.3. Sposoby zwiększania wydajności procesu mikrobiologicznej dekoloryzacji barwników. 4.4. Zaawansowane techniki analityczne wykorzystywane w badaniach nad dekoloryzacją barwników. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Many industrial dyes are commonly present in wastewater and, due to its toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, can cause serious pollution of the aquatic environment. So far, a number of strategies has been developed for dye elimination from wastewater, however, the most promising method seems to be bioremediation involving various microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and microscopic algae. This article presents the latest research on microbial decolourisation of synthetic dye. Microorganisms capable for decolourisation, mechanisms involved in the bioremoval of dyes and analytical tools applied in process characterization have been summarised. In addition, this review discusses genetic manipulation of microorganisms and enzymes used for dye decolourisation.

1. Introduction. 2. Synthetic dyes – structure, classification and application. 3. Impact of dyes on the environment. 4. Methods for dye removal. 4.1. Chemical and physical methods. 4.2. Biological methods. 4.2.1. Biosorption. 4.2.2. Bioaccumulation. 4.2.3. Biodegradation. 4.3. Enhancement of the microbial decolourisation of dyes. 4.4. Advanced analytical tools in the decolourisation studies. 5. Conclusions

Penicillin G secretion by industrial mycelia of Penicillium chrysogenum

Wydalanie penicyliny G z przemysłowej grzybni Penicillium chrysogenum
W. Kurzątkowski, A. Gębska-Kuczerowska, K. Oliwa-Dobieszewska, A. Gaber, M. Kuczerowski

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Barwniki syntetyczne – budowa, podział i zastosowanie. 3. Barwniki a środowisko. 4. Metody usuwania barwników syntetycznych ze ścieków. 4.1. Metody chemiczne i fizyczne. 4.2. Metody biologiczne. 4.2.1. Biosorpcja. 4.2.2. Bioakumulacja. 4.2.3. Biodegradacja. 4.3. Sposoby zwiększania wydajności procesu mikrobiologicznej dekoloryzacji barwników. 4.4. Zaawansowane techniki analityczne wykorzystywane w badaniach nad dekoloryzacją barwników. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Many industrial dyes are commonly present in wastewater and, due to its toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, can cause serious pollution of the aquatic environment. So far, a number of strategies has been developed for dye elimination from wastewater, however, the most promising method seems to be bioremediation involving various microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and microscopic algae. This article presents the latest research on microbial decolourisation of synthetic dye. Microorganisms capable for decolourisation, mechanisms involved in the bioremoval of dyes and analytical tools applied in process characterization have been summarised. In addition, this review discusses genetic manipulation of microorganisms and enzymes used for dye decolourisation.

1. Introduction. 2. Synthetic dyes – structure, classification and application. 3. Impact of dyes on the environment. 4. Methods for dye removal. 4.1. Chemical and physical methods. 4.2. Biological methods. 4.2.1. Biosorption. 4.2.2. Bioaccumulation. 4.2.3. Biodegradation. 4.3. Enhancement of the microbial decolourisation of dyes. 4.4. Advanced analytical tools in the decolourisation studies. 5. Conclusions

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII 2021, Tom 60, Zeszyt 3

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII 2021, Tom 60, Zeszyt 3

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2021, Tom 60, Zeszyt 3

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.