1. Epidemiologia zakażeń HGV/GBV-C i HIV. 2. Współzakażenie HGV/GBV-C i HIV jako wynik wspólnych dróg zakażeń. 3. Analiza porównawcza budowy wirusów. 4. Kliniczne aspekty zakażenia. 5. Patogeneza współzakażenia HGV/GBV-C i HIV. 5.1.Tropizm. 5.2. Rola E2 i NS5A HGV/GBV-C w przebiegu zakażenia HIV. 5.3. Wpływ HGV/GBV-C na poziom ekspresji receptorów CCR5 i CXCR4 oraz wydzielanie cytokin. 6. Wpływ leczenia interferonem na zakażenie HGV/GBV-C. 7. HAART u pacjentów współzakażonych HGV/GBV-C i HIV. 8. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Recent studies showed that HGV/GBV-C infection may exert a beneficial effect on the course of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection in coinfected patients. It was found that CD4+ cell number is higher and progression to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is slower in coinfected patients as compared to HIV infected subjects. HGV/GBV-C infection is not associated with hepatitis, but can be responsible for development of some lymphoproliferative disease. HGV/GBV-C and HIV share common features, in particular: they are tropic for cells of the immune system, their genetic material consist of RNA and both circulate as quasispecies. HGV/GBV-C and HIV are transmitted through infected blood, sexually and vertically. The proposed mechanisms of HGV/GBV-C influence on HIV infection are based on the same tropism to immune cells and direct competition on the cellular level. It was observed that HGV/GBV-C can affect cytokine level, reduce expression of CCR5 and CXCR4, E2 and NS5A HGV/GBV-C proteins have inhibitory effect on HIV replication. Currently, there is no specific treatment directed against HGV/GBV-C infection, however, it is possible to analyze results of antiviral treatment in case of patients coinfected with HGV/GBV-C, HCV or HIV. HAART (high-activity antiretroviral therapy) and interferon α therapy are commonly used in these patients, but the effect of antiviral therapy on HGV/GBV-C remains unclear.
1. Epidemiology of HGV/GBV-C and HIV infection. 2. HGV/GBV-C and HIV coinfection as a result of common routes of transmission. 3. Comparative analysis of the structure of viruses. 4. Clinical aspects of infection. 5. Pathogenesis of HGV/GBV-C and HIV coinfection. 5.1. Tropism. 5.2. Role of E2 and NS5A HGV/GBV-C in the course of HIV infection. 5.3. Influence of HGV/GBV-C on CCR5 and CXCR4 expression and cytokines level. 6. Influence of interferon therapy on HGV/GBV-C infection. 7. HAART in patients with HGV/GBV-C and HIV coinfection. 8. Summary