Abstract: Due to the total number of microorganisms and multitude of roles they play in the human body, intestinal bacteria are increasingly called the “microbial organ”. Proper composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome is necessary to maintain human health. According to the latest studies, the imbalance in the composition of intestinal microorganisms, called dysbiosis, can result in development of numerous diseases, including metabolic disorders e.g. diabetes. The incidence of this disease is constantly increasing. The pathogenesis of diabetes is complicated and not yet fully understood. However, it is known that many factors influence its development. Intestinal microbiota is increasingly mentioned among them. Based on a literature review related to the subject, it can be concluded that dysbiosis, intestinal barrier damage and endotoxemia adversely affect metabolic parameters.
1. Introduction 2. The composition and distribution of microorganisms in the digestive tract 3. The functions of intestinal microorganisms 4. Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microorganisms 5. Intestinal dysbiosis – an imbalance in microbiome composition 6. Diabetes as a civilization disease. 7. Intestinal microbiota and types 1 and 2 diabetes 8. Conclusions