MULTIDRUG EFFLUX PUMPS IN BACTERIA AND EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS

POMPY OPORNOŚCI WIELOLEKOWEJ U BAKTERII I ICH INHIBITORY
Abhirami P. Sreekantan, Pooja P. Rajan, Minsa Mini and Praveen Kumar

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Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a paramount health concern nowadays. The increasing drug resistance in microbes is due to improper medications or over usage of drugs. Bacteria develop many mechanisms to extrude the antibiotics entering the cell. The most prominent are the efflux pumps (EPs). EPs play a significant role in intrinsic and acquired bacterial resistance, mainly in Gram-negative bacteria. EPs may be unique to one substrate or transport several structurally different compounds (including multi-class antibiotics). These pumps are generally associated with multiple drug resistance (MDR). EPs are energized by a proton motive force and can pump a vast range of detergents, drugs, antibiotics and also β-lactams, which are impermeable to the cytoplasmic membrane. There are five leading efflux transporter families in the prokaryotic kingdom: MF (Major Facilitator), MATE (Multidrug And Toxic Efflux), RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Division), SMR (Small Multidrug Resistance) and ABC (ATP Binding Cassette). Apart from the ABC family, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to drive the export of substrates, all other systems use the proton motive force as an energy source. Some molecules known as Efflux Pump Inhibitors (EPI) can inhibit EPs in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. EPIs can interfere with the efflux of antimicrobial agents, leading to an increase in the concentration of antibiotics inside the bacterium, thus killing it. Therefore, identifying new EPIs appears to be a promising strategy for countering antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR). This mini-review focuses on the major efflux transporters of the bacteria and the progress in identifying Efflux Pump Inhibitors.

1. Introduction. 2. Major classes of efflux pumps. 2.1. ATP-Binding Cassette Superfamily. 2.2. Major Facilitator Superfamily. 2.3. Multidrug And Toxic Compound Extrusion Family. 2.4. Small Multi-drug Resistance Family. 2.5. Resistance-Nodulation-Division Superfamily. 3. Efflux pumps and their role in virulence and biofilm formation. 4. Efflux Pump Inhibitors

A REVIEW OF PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS IN POULTRY: IMPROVING IMMUNITY AND HAVING BENEFICIAL EFFECTS ON PRODUCTION AND HEALTH

PRZEGLĄD ZASTOSOWAŃ PROBIOTYKÓW U DROBIU: POPRAWA ODPORNOŚCI I KORZYSTNE EFEKTY NA PRODUKCJĘ I ZDROWIE
Shumaila Yousaf, Hafiz Muhammad Nouman, Ibrar Ahmed, Sabir Husain, Muhammad Waseem, Shahid Nadeem, Muhammad Tariq, Ozge Sizmaz, Muhammad Farhan Zafar Chudhry

Abstract: A new class of feed additives and nutritional supplements, known as probiotics, include bacterial, fungal, and yeast cultures from various sources. Overall, probiotics are believed to promote the health and well-being of animals, birds, and humans in a variety of settings. Incorporating probiotics into the diets of cattle and poultry has been demonstrated to improve growth, feed conversion efficiency, immunological responses, and the animal’s ability to manage enteric infections. The use of probiotic-enriched chicken feed has been shown to enhance egg production by as much as 30% among laying chickens. Probiotics may be used to fight off harmful microorganisms, create antibacterial compounds (such as bacteriocins or colicins), and alter the immunological response of the host, according to the National Institutes of Health. Pathogenic microbial strains such as Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Aspergillus, and Saccharomyces are employed in the making of chicken products. The use of subtherapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics, to combat or remove harmful bacteria and promote animal growth and feed efficiency has resulted in the accumulation of antibiotic residues in animal feed as well as the emergence of drug-resistant microbes in the feed supply chain. As a result of public health concerns, there has been a renewed emphasis on the use of probiotics in chicken production rather than antibiotics in recent years. This research examines the effects of probiotics and direct-fed microorganisms (DFM) on chicken health and performance, with a particular emphasis on the favourable effects they have on poultry health and performance.

1. Introduction. 2. Probiotics’ historical development. 3. Criteria for a perfect probiotic. 4. Microbes commonly used as probiotics. 5. Probiotics in poultry applications. 6. Gastrointestinal tract probiotic colonization. 7. Continuing to improve digestion, nutrient metabolism and nutrient utilization. 8. Management of harmful pathogens and disease conditions. 9. Immunostimulation. 10. Probiotics as a growth institution. 10.1. Lactobacilli. 10.2. Aspergillus oryzae. 10.3. Yeast. 11. Salient benefits and recommendations for probiotic use. 12. Conclusion

COVID-19 TRANSMISSION, RISKS FACTORS AND DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS IN ASTHMATICS PATIENTS

TRANSMISJA COVID-19, CZYNNIKI RYZYKA I CHARAKTERYSTYKA CHOROBY U PACJENTÓW CHORYCH NA ASTMĘ
Shatha A. Alduraywish

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Abstract: The World Health Organizations (WHO) scientific brief on the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and asthma from 2021, states individuals with asthma to be at a higher risk of respiratory infections as recorded in the annual influenza season. However, existing data from the COVID-19 pandemic does not till date establish an association of the disease with asthma. The disease burden of COVID-19 among asthmatic patients has not been very evident. This paucity of information forms the main rationale of our literature review, which is focused on collecting scattered literature around transmission, risks, as well as disease characteristics of COVID-19 among asthmatics world over including Saudi Arabia. Methodology – This study report has been generated after detailed literature survey using keywords “asthma”, “coronavirus”, “COVID-19” and SARS-CoV-2 including quality high impact publications on relevant focus area through Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed. Publication between year 2019 and 2021 were selected in specific to ensure the focus of the current literature review does not lose relevance in space of time. Results – Our literature review identified elderly to have been reported to have high susceptibility to COVID-19; the risk being exacerbated among those with comorbidities. Further, no specific directives on asthma being one of the risk factors was found to be reported, especially with the current disease management strategy for COVID-19. The severely diseased COVID-19 patients also have been reported to exhibit increase in multiple cytokines, which may increase airway inflammation and exacerbate asthma attacks. However, contrary literature reports indicate an increase in T cells to reduce the disease impact of COVID-19. Conclusion – There is paucity in significant evidence as of writing this review article to highlight exclusive negative impact of COVID-19 on asthmatics. Asthma patients however need to be recommended care pertaining to having their controller medication as new data continue to emerge on the clinic-pathological factors of the novel coronavirus.

1. Introduction. 2. History of the pandemic. 3. Prevalence of COVID-19. 4. COVID-19: Risk factors, manifestation, complications. 5. Methodology. 6. COVID-19 and respiratory disorders. 7. COVID-19 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) disorders. 8. COVID-19 and asthma. 9. Discussion

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII 2022, Tom 61, Zeszyt 3

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII 2022, Tom 61, Zeszyt 3

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2022, Tom 61, Zeszyt 3

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.