Beztlenowe ziarenkowce Gram-dodatnie (GPAC) – diagnostyka i znaczenie kliniczne
1. Wstęp. 2. Systematyka beztlenowych ziarenkowców Gram-dodatnich. 3. Znaczenie kliniczne GPAC. 4. Diagnostyka laboratoryjna. 4.1. Hodowla. 4.2. Identyfikacja fenotypowa. 4.3. Identyfikacja genotypowa. 5. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Among the Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria associated with clinical infections, the Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are the most predominant and account for approximately 25–30% of all isolated anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens. They can be cultured from a wide variety of sites, particularly abscesses and infections of the mouth, skin and soft tissues, bone and joints and upper respiratory and female genital tracts. Most infections involving GPAC are polymicrobial. Still, routine culture and identification of these slowly growing anaerobes to the species level has been limited in the diagnostic laboratory, mainly due to the requirement of prolonged incubation times and time-consuming phenotypic identification. The development of molecular methods such as PCR, multiplex PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have led to improved identification of GPAC. In recent years, MALDI-TOF MS has been implemented in routine laboratories and utilized as a completely new approach for the identification of bacteria. Data from molecular methods have led to extensive taxonomic changes during the last decades and also to the occurrence of new genera and species. This review describes clinical significance of GPAC and virulence factors one of the most pathogenic species – Finegoldia magna.
1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci. 3. Clinical significance of GPAC. 4. Laboratory diagnostic. 4.1. Culture. 4.2. Phenotypic identification. 4.3. Genotypic identification. 5. Summary