Bakterie endofityczne – ich pochodzenie i interakcje z roślinami
1. Wstęp. 2. Źródła bakterii endofitycznych. 3. Kolonizacja rośliny – gospodarza przez bakterie endofityczne. 4. Oddziaływania molekularne. 5. Znaczenie bakterii endofitycznych dla roślin. 6. Endofity jako potencjalne patogeny i inhibitory wzrostu roślin 7. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Endophytic bacteria colonize tissue of healthy plants. The source of these bacteria are plant seedlings, seeds and soil. The impact of these microorganisms on plants have been tested for biological control of pathogens, induction of systemic resistance, promote growth and development of plants through binding of free nitrogen, increase in minerals uptake and increase plant resistance to unfavorable abiotic factors. The most numerous reported taxa of endophytic bacteria belong to the genues of phyla Proteobacteria (Azospirillum, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacterium) and Firmicutes (Bacillus).
Endophytes show a great potential in plant production. Increasing interest in these microorganisms in plants protection seems to be an essential part of sustainable crop production. Indeed, their use may bring benefits for agriculture, including increased efficiency of mineral fertilizer, reduce agricultural production costs through more efficient use of fertilizers as well as reduced application of synthetic pesticides. Adoption of microbes will also reduce negative impact of crop production on environment. To avoid potential human pathogens in plant protection, microbes have to undergo a comprehensive risk assessment. In the EU, this assessment is based on principles which were originally developed for pesticides. Although the EU directive concerning the registration of microorganisms as Biological Control Agents, has been adapted to better understand the requirements of microorganisms, it is still time consuming and require large financial input. In EU countries, registration of BCAs lasts up to 7 years, which discourages this type of research and keeps safer plant protection products off the market.
1. Introduction. 2. Sources of endophytic bacteria. 3. Plant colonization 4. Molecular interactions. 5. Effects of endophytic bacteria to the plant. 6. Bacterial endophytes like a potential pathogens and plant growth inhibitors 7. Conlusions