1. Wstęp. 2. Klasyfikacja zakażeń układu moczowego (ZUM). 3. Przyczyny, czynniki ryzyka oraz objawy ZUM. 4. Czynniki etiologiczna ZUM. 4.1. Zakażenia układu moczowego u osób dorosłych. 4.2. ZUM u dzieci. 4.3. ZUM u osób starszych. 5. Uropatogenne szczepy Escherichia coli. 5.1. Adhezyny. 5.2. Odpowiedź immunologiczna gospodarza na zakażenie UPEC. 6. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most widespread infections, particularly among women (40–50%) as well as newborns, infants and elderly persons. In addition, recurrent episodes of UTIs are common and frequently become chronic. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of UTIs, bothcommunity- and hospital-acquired, followed by other Enterobacteriaceae (Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp.), Pseudomonas spp. and Gram-positive cocci. The majority of UTIs are caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) characterized by the presence of various adhesive fimbriae (pili) e.g., type 1 or P, S and Afa/Dr fimbriae, the crucial virulence factors for their pathogenic capabilities. For example, type 1 fimbriae are common among cystitis-associated UPEC, P fimbriae are characteristic adhesins in E. coli pyelonephritis, and Dr fimbriae UPEC strains are frequently isolated (40%) from pregnancy-associated pyelonephritis cases. In consequence, Dr+ E. coli may contribute to serious pregnancy complications, including premature births or damage of the fetus. Therefore, the more extensive knowledge about mechanisms of pathogenesis of UPEC strains may facilitate development of novel diagnostic methods and might prove essential for better risk assessment for patients with UTIs.
1. Introduction. 2. Classification of urinary tract infections (UTIs). 3. The causes, risk factors and symptoms of UTIs. 4. Etiological factors of UTIs. 4.1. Urinary tract infections in adults. 4.2. UTIs in children population. 4.3. UTIs in the elderly. 5. Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). 5.1. Fimbriae. 5.2. Host immune response against UPEC colonization of the urinary tract. 6. Summary