1. Wakcynologia – rys historyczny i perspektywy. 2. Swoista (nabyta) odpowiedź immunologiczna. 3. Komórki efektorowe odpowiedzi typu komórkowego. 4. Prezentacja antygenu i jego rozpoznanie przez limfocyty. 5. Pamięć immunologiczna. 6. Szczepionki indukujące odpowiedź komórkową. 7. Szczepionki podjednostkowe. 8. Adiuwanty. 9. Szczepionki wektorowe. 10. Bakterie patogenne jako wektory szczepionkowe. 11. Bakterie niepatogenne jako wektory szczepionkowe. 12. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Various strategies can be used to deliver antigens to the cytosol of antigen presenting cells, e.g. using nanoparticles, liposomes, immune stimulating complexes, viruses or bacteria. Among them, the use of bacterial carriers constitutes probably the most studied strategy. Depending on the extra- or intracellular life cycle of the pathogen, different immune responses are required for protection. Vaccines formulated on the basis of killed whole cells or isolated cell fractions tend to induce strong antibody response, however, they are ineffective at inducing cellular immunity. Due to these characteristics such antigens are used mainly to immunize against extracellular pathogens. Conversely, live attenuated mutants induce a broad range of immune responses including CD8+ T cell response, thereby leading to effective immunization against intracellular pathogens. Besides adjuvant properties provided by carried molecular patterns, live bacterial carriers have other important advantages, such as the ability to mimic natural infection and possibility to be administered in a needle-free manner. Remarkably, vector-based vaccines can be designed to enable induction of immune response against their own or carried heterologous antigens. Both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms are used in the next generation vaccine design, however, due to the potential risk of conversion to a virulent strain and causing infection or the loss of immunogenic potency, pathogenic vectors are less likely to use. Questions concerning safety which have arisen with the advent of live-attenuated bacterial vectors made the researchers turn their attention to non-pathogenic bacteria.
1. Vaccinology – historical background and perspectives. 2. Acquired immunity. 3. Effector cells of cell-mediated immune response. 4. Antigen presentation and its recognition by T-cells. 5. Immunological memory. 6. Vaccines inducing cellular immune response. 7. Subunit vaccines. 8. Adjuvants. 9. Vector vaccines. 10. Pathogenic bacteria as vaccine vectors. 11. Non-pathogenic bacteria as vaccine vectors. 12. Summary