1. Rys historyczny i charakterystyka. 2. Struktura i zmienność EBOV. 3. Rezerwuar zwierzęcy filowirusów. 4. Podstawowe etapy cyklu życiowego wirusa Ebola w komórce. 5. Wybrane mechanizmy patogenności wirusa Ebola. 6. Paleowirusologia. 7. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Ebola virus, discovered in 1976, caused the largest epidemic among humans in 2014. In this paper, we have discussed the systematic position of Ebolavirus, the ecology of these viruses, the essential elements of pathogenesis of infections as well as comparative characteristics of Filoviruses infectious biology. According to the paleovirological data, these features were developed during millions of years of the co-evolution process and co-existence of pathogens and hosts. It is likely that changes of Ebola virus biology are not the reason for such substantial changes in the epidemiology of Ebola virus infections. Analysis of factors associated with the characteristics of the present epidemic (size, region) indicate that the main reason for such big epidemic may be the changes related to both humans activity, mainly transformation of the environment, and the ability of bats (natural hosts of Filoviruses) to adapt to the new ecological conditions. These processes may cause more outbreaks in the future, also on a large scale, and require taking appropriate actions to reduce the risks.
1. History and characteristics of filoviruses. 2. The structure and variability of EBOV. 3. Animal reservoir of Filoviruses. 4. Basics of the Ebola virus life cycle in the cell. 5. Selected mechanisms of pathogenicity of Ebola virus. 6. Filovirus paleovirology. 7. Summary