Browsing tag: mikroorganizmy

ZANIECZYSZCZENIA MIKROBIOLOGICZNE PODZIEMNYCH MAGAZYNÓW GAZU I GAZOCIĄGÓW

Microbiological contaminations of underground gas storage facilities and natural gas pipelines
Agnieszka Staniszewska, Alina Kunicka-Styczyńska, Krzysztof Ziemiński

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Drobnoustroje w podziemnych magazynach gazu. 3. Mikroorganizmy w gazociągach. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The growing demand for natural gas is primarily due to an increase in the share of gas in electricity production. Replacing coal with natural gas results in a significant decrease in emissions of greenhouse gases and dusts. The presence of microorganisms may be the cause of underground gas storage (UGS) facilities and pipelines deterioration. Microorganisms and their metabolic products contribute to the formation of sudden and unexpected failure causing loss of energy security by: decline in the quality of stored gas or disruption of its transmission. The paper presents a variety of microbiomes of the underground storage facilities and pipelines, showing that not only the sulfate-reducing bacteria are able to grow and develop in these extreme environments. Microorganisms producing CH4 may change the composition of the gas, and the produced H2S and CO2 are not only gas pollutants, but also generate corrosion of transmission networks. At the same time, the presence of bacteria and archaea in pipelines hinders the correct operation of the network, through the accumulation of biofilm and reduction in the pipe diameter.

Introduction. 2. Microorganisms in underground gas storage facilities. 3. Microorganisms in natural gas pipelines. 4. Summary

ZABÓJCZE DROBNOUSTROJE – MIKROORGANIZMY WYKORZYSTYWANE JAKO BROŃ BIOLOGICZNA

Deadly microbes – microbes used as a biological weapon
Karol Abramczyk, Anna Gałązka

1. Wstęp. 2. Wąglik (Bacillus anthracis). 2.1. Patogenność Bacillus anthracis. 2.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie wąglika. 3. Dżuma (Yersinia pestis). 3.1. Patogenność Yersinia pestis. 3.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie dżumy. 4. Tularemia (Francisella tularensis). 4.1. Patogenność Francisella tularensis. 4.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie tularemii. 5. Wirus Ebola. 5.1. Patogenność wirusa Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease – EVD). 5.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie gorączki krwotocznej EVD. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Due to the development of civilization, people’s needs and expectations increase. The global development of civilization, the desire of some countries to expand their borders and achieve a higher political, social and military influence, cause insecurity among the people. Security is one of the main factors for the proper functioning of individuals and whole societies. Currently, a major threat to people is terrorism. Especially dangerous is the use of biological weapons for this purpose, which significantly interferes with a sense of security and restricts the freedom of human activities. Currently, biological terrorism is a global threat associated with the use of weapons for political or religious reasons. The threat from radical religious fundamentalists is particularly dangerous. The most common biological threat agents are microorganisms causing zoonoses, i.e. diseases which can be transmitted from animals to humans. The most dangerous are Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis. They are characterized by high virulence, ease of spread and the possibility to obtain and use them at low cost. The aim of this paper is to characterize, based on the available literature, the most dangerous microorganisms which pose a potential threat to humans as biological warfare. The article also provides basic information on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by pathogens which can be used in a bioterrorist attack.

1. Introduction. 2. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). 2.1. Pathogenicity of anthrax. 2.2. Diagnosis and treatment of anthrax. 3. Plague (Yersinia pestis). 3.1. Pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis. 3.2. Diagnosis and treatment of plague. 4. Tularemia (Francisella tularensis). 4.1. Pathogenicity of Francisella tularensis. 4.2. Diagnosis and treatment of Francisella tularensis. 5. Ebola virus. 5.1. Pathogenicity of Ebola virus. 5.2. Diagnosis and treatment of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). 6. Summary

Mikrobiologiczny rozkład kwasu cynamonowego i jego hydroksypochodnych

Microbiological degradation of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl-derivatives
D. Wojcieszyńska, K. Hupert - Kocurek, U. Guzik

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Przemiany kwasu cynamonowego i jego hydroksypochodnych w warunkach beztlenowych. 3. Rozkład kwasu cynamonowego i jego hydroksypochodnych w warunkach tlenowych. 4. Biotransformacja kwasu cynamonowego i jego hydroksypochodnych. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Microbiological degradation of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl-derivatives occurs via aerobic or anaerobic pathway. The first step in the biodegradation of these compounds, both aerobic and anaerobic, is β-oxidation. The key intermediate in this process is benzoyl-CoA. In anaerobic environment this intermediate can be transformed to acetyl-CoA, incorporated into the central metabolism. Under aerobic condition benzoyl-CoA is transformed to protocatechuate acid, gentisic acid or catechol, compounds which are cleaved by a specific dioxygenase. Many microorganisms can transform phenolic acid to an amino acid or other compounds such as which 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, amide, acetophenone, which can be used in industry.

1. Introduction. 2. Anaerobic degradation of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl-derivatives. 3. Degradation of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl-derivatives under aerobic conditions. 4. Bioconversion of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl-derivatives. 5. Summary

Mikrobiologiczna degradacja niesteroidowych leków przeciwzapalnych

Microbial degradation non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
U. Guzik, K. Hupert-Kocurek, D. Wojcieszyńska

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Charakterystyka niesteroidowych leków przeciwzapalnych. 3. Degradacja niesteroidowych leków przeciwzapalnych metodami fizyko-chemicznymi. 4. Szlaki biologicznej degradacji niesteroidowych leków przeciwzapalnych. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: In the recent years, commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely detected in the environment. These biologically active substances and their continuous inflow into the environment may lead to their accumulation in the environment and chronic exposure of organisms. This in turn may cause the potential negative effects on living organisms. While the transformation mechanisms of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the human body and in other animals have been extensively studied, degradation of these drugs by bacteria (including their degradation pathways and degradation products) has seldom been investigated and are largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this paper is presentation actual stage of knowledge about microbiological degradation pathways of NSAIDs such as naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, paracetamol.

1. Introduction, 2. Characterization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 3. Degradation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by physicochemical methods, 4. Pathways of biological degradation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 5. Conclusion

Nitrozwiązki aromatyczne – charakterystyka i metody biodegradacji

Nitroaromatic compounds – characteristics and methods of biodegradation
A. Wysocka, A. Olszyna, I. Komorowska, M. Popowska

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. 2. Charakterystyka nitrozwiązków aromatycznych. 2.1. Właściwości chemiczne i synteza nitroarenów. 2.2. Syntetyczne nitrozwiązki aromatyczne. 3. Nitrozwiązki aromatyczne w środowisku. 4. Zagrożenia związane z nitrozwiązkami aromatycznymi. 5. Biodegradacja nitrozwiązków aromatycznych. 5.1.Mikrobiologiczna degradacja związków aromatycznych. 5.1.1. Degradacja tlenowa (aerobowa). 5.1.2. Redukcyjny rozkład nitroarenów. 5.1.2.1. Rozkład beztlenowy (anaerobowy). 5.1.3 Degradacja nitrobenzenu – przykład alternatywnych ścieżek rozkładu. 6. Bioremediacja. 6.1 Bioremediacja związków nitroaromatycznych – przykłady realizacji. 6.1.1. Bioremediacja inżynieryjna in situ. 6.1.2. Bioremediacja inżynieryjna ex situ. 6.2. Ograniczenia procesu bioremediacji i strategie ich przezwyciężania. 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Nitroaromatic compounds are present in the environment mainly as industry products. They pose a serious risk to our health (often exhibiting strong mutagenic and carcinogenic effect) as well as to the environment. Most of the nitroaromatic compounds are stable due to considerable resistance to degradation and they persist in the environment for a long time. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge concerning biodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds. In the first part, general information regarding their proprieties, synthesis and sources as well as pathways of microbial aerobic or anaerobic degradation are described. In some cases microorganisms have evolved several pathways of degradation specific nitrocompound, for instance nitrobenzene, which we describe in detail. The second part of the publication focuses on environmental bioremediation of nitrocompounds.

1. Introduction. 2.2. Characteristics of aromatic nitrocompounds. 2.1. Chemical properties and synthesis nitroarenes. 2.2. Synthetic aromatic nitrocompounds. 3. The aromatic nitrocompounds in the environment. 4. Risks related to aromatic nitrocompounds. 5. Biodegradation of aromatic nitrocompounds. 5.1. Microbial degradation of aromatic compounds. 5.1.1. Aerobic degradation. 5.1.2. Reductive degradation nitroarenes. 5.1.2.1. Anaerobic digestion. 5.1.3 Degradation of nitrobenzene – an example of alternative distribution pathway. 6. Bioremediation. 6.1. Bioremediation of aromatic nitro compounds – examples of implementation. 6.1.1. Bioremediation engineering in situ. 6.1.2. Bioremediation engineering ex situ. 6.2. Limitations of the bioremediation process and strategies to overcome them. 7. Summary

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POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2018, 57, 1

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.