1. Wstęp. 2. Strategie immunomodulacyjne pokswirusów. 3. Rodzina czynników transkrypcyjnych NF-кB jako cel komórkowy immunomodulacji wirusowej. 4. Interakcje wirusa krowianki (VACV) z NF-кB. 5. Wpływ wirusa ospy myszy (ektromelii; ECTV) na aktywację NF-кB. 6. Interferencja wirusa ospy bydła (CPXV) z aktywacją NF-кB. 7. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Successful replication of the viral genome and the spreading of progeny virions are ensured by a repertoire of virus-encoded immunomodulatory proteins, which enable avoiding different mechanisms of cell response which are directed against pathogens. These strategies have also been evolved by poxviruses, which are being studied extensively due to the threat of the recurrence of smallpox caused by variola virus (VARV). This work describes three model viruses that are used in smallpox pathogenesis studies: vaccinia virus (VACV), ectromelia virus (ECTV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) and their in’uence on nuclear factor кB (NF-кB) activation. NF-кB is a widely studied multifunctional transcription factor that regulates both innate and adaptive mechanisms of immune response. The classical pathway of NF-кB activation is stimulated by viral infections; moreover, it can be modified by viral gene products. Poxvirus immunomodulatory proteins that interfere with NF-кB activation can be divided into several groups: ligand inhibitors, intracellular inhibitors of NF-кB, ankyrin repeat (ANK) NF-кB inhibitors and PYRIN domain (PYD) NF-кB inhibitors. The studies on their influence on the host immune response will lead to better understanding of viral pathogenesis and may help in drug and vaccines engineering in the future.
1. Introduction. 2. Poxvirus immunomodulatory strategies. 3. The NF-кB family of transcription factors as a cellular target for viral immunomodulation. 4. Interactions between vaccinia virus (VACV) and NF-кB. 5. The influence of mousepox (ectromelia; ECTV) virus on the activation of NF-кB. 6. Cowpox virus (CPXV) interference with the activation of NF-кB. 7. Summary