1. Wstęp. 2. Epidemiologia zakażeń HBoV. 3. Charakterystyka bokawirusów człowieka 4. Mechanizmy umożliwiające przetrwanie genomu HBoV w zakażonej komórce. 5. Odpowiedź immunologiczna na zakażenie HBoV. 6. Laboratoryjna diagnostyka zakażeń bokawirusami. 7. Bokawirusy a zakażenia mieszane. 8. Podsumowanie
Abstract: In this article, the characteristics of human Bocaviruses (HBoV) are presented. The viruses were described for the first time in 2005. The symptoms of HBoV infection are: cough, coryza, sore throat, breathing difficulty, but also nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Four types of Bocaviruses are associated with human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. HBoV1 is the main etiologic agent of respiratory tract infections, whereas HBoV2 causes gastrointestinal diseases. Bocaviruses can cause mild, asymptomatic infections as well as severe respiratory diseases, like pneumonia and bronchiolitis. HBoV2 is the third agent, after Rotaviruses and Astroviruses, which causes acute gastroenteritis in children. The treatment of HBoV infections is usually symptomatic The HBoV diagnosis is mainly based on molecular technics, such as quantitative PCR, serological tests are only used for epidemiological purposes. Infections due to HBoV occur during the whole human life, but they are most frequent in children from 6 month- to 3 year-old. HBoV infections are commonall over the world and, when detected, in Poland too. Infections occur throughout the year, but are most common in the winter season. The high rate of co-detection of HBoV with other viruses has been reported (82% samples). HBoV2 is the most frequently identified virus in co-infections with Noroviruses, Rotaviruses and Astroviruses, while HBoV1 – with RSV and HMPV.
1. Introduction. 2. Epidemiology of HBoV infections. 3. Characteristics of human bocavirus. 4. Mechanisms allowing survival of the genome HBoV in the infected cell. 5. The immune response to infection of HBoV. 6. Laboratory diagnostic HBoV infections. 7. Bocaviruses andco-infections. 8. Summary