Browsing tag: bakterie

Bakterie endofityczne – ich pochodzenie i interakcje z roślinami

Bacterial endophytes – their origin and interaction with plants
K. Pisarska, S. J. Pietr

1. Wstęp. 2. Źródła bakterii endofitycznych. 3. Kolonizacja rośliny – gospodarza przez bakterie endofityczne. 4. Oddziaływania molekularne. 5. Znaczenie bakterii endofitycznych dla roślin. 6. Endofity jako potencjalne patogeny i inhibitory wzrostu roślin 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Endophytic bacteria colonize tissue of healthy plants. The source of these bacteria are plant seedlings, seeds and soil. The impact of these microorganisms on plants have been tested for biological control of pathogens, induction of systemic resistance, promote growth and development of plants through binding of free nitrogen, increase in minerals uptake and increase plant resistance to unfavorable abiotic factors. The most numerous reported taxa of endophytic bacteria belong to the genues of phyla Proteobacteria (Azospirillum, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacterium) and Firmicutes (Bacillus).
Endophytes show a great potential in plant production. Increasing interest in these microorganisms in plants protection seems to be an essential part of sustainable crop production. Indeed, their use may bring benefits for agriculture, including increased efficiency of mineral fertilizer, reduce agricultural production costs through more efficient use of fertilizers as well as reduced application of synthetic pesticides. Adoption of microbes will also reduce negative impact of crop production on environment. To avoid potential human pathogens in plant protection, microbes have to undergo a comprehensive risk assessment. In the EU, this assessment is based on principles which were originally developed for pesticides. Although the EU directive concerning the registration of microorganisms as Biological Control Agents, has been adapted to better understand the requirements of microorganisms, it is still time consuming and require large financial input. In EU countries, registration of BCAs lasts up to 7 years, which discourages this type of research and keeps safer plant protection products off the market.

1. Introduction. 2. Sources of endophytic bacteria. 3. Plant colonization 4. Molecular interactions. 5. Effects of endophytic bacteria to the plant. 6. Bacterial endophytes like a potential pathogens and plant growth inhibitors 7. Conlusions

Czynniki biologiczne w etiopatogenezie schizofrenii

Biological factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia
M. Wiciński, B. Malinowski, E. Grześk, K. Szadujkis-Szadurska, A. Czeczuk, A. Michalska, J. Klonowska, K. Wójtowicz-Chomicz, J. Ostrowska, W. Stolarek, G. Grześk

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Zakażenia wirusowe a patogeneza schizofrenii. 3. Infekcja bakteryjna a schizofrenia. 4. Przyczyny schizofrenii a choroby pasożytnicze. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, that affects 7 per 1,000 people, aged 15–35 years. There are many theories about the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia, but the most important is dopaminergic theory, according to which psychotic symptoms are caused by excessive stimulation of dopaminergic structures in the limbic system. Moreover, many investigations showed significant influence of various microbes on certain genes expressed during prenatal period. It may cause neurohormonal changes similar to these noticed in the schizophrenia. Furthermore, numerous scientific groups work in the field of the interactions between endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Due to the last theory, the correlation between viral, bacterial and parasitic infections and their impact on those systems, seems to be particularly interesting and requires further investigation.

1. Introduction. 2. Viral infection and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. 3. Bacterial infection and schizophrenia. 4. The causes of schizophrenia and parasitic diseases. 5. Summary

Mikroflora i parazytofauna obcych i inwazyjnych gatunków żółwi

Microflora and parasitofauna of alien and invasive turtle species
O. Goławska, M. Demkowska-Kutrzepa, E. Borzym, P. Różański, M. Zając, A. Rzeżutka, D. Wasyl

1. Wstęp. 2. Inwazyjne gatunki żółwi. 3. Bakterie. 3.1. Salmonella spp. 3.1.1. Reptile Associated Salmonellosis (RAS). 3.2. Prątki. 3.3. Inne bakterie. 4. Parazytofauna żółwi. 4.1. Żółwie inwazyjne źródłem zarażenia helmintami żółwia błotnego. 4.2. Występowanie i patogenność obcych pasożytów u natywnych i obcych gatunków żółwi. 5. Infekcje wirusowe. 6. Infekcje grzybicze. 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Invasiveness of alien turtles results from their impact on the functioning of the local ecosystem. It is due to predation on or competing with resident species, but also transfer of new and unknown pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi. Salmonella is the most often reported microorganism, both in free-living and captive turtles. Zoonotic aspect of Salmonella spp. carriage has led to the definition of RAS (Reptile Associated Salmonellosis) acquired from domestic pet reptiles. Mycobacterium spp., Leptospira spp. and aquatic bacteria are also found in turtles. Additionally, nematode transmissions from invasive turtles to the autochthonic ones have been described. Alien turtles were less affected by parasitic invasion than animals living in a native location, but the infestation of alien parasites in native turtle species was usually more severe. Reports on viral or fungal infections in turtles are scarce. The identified knowledge gaps justify the need for research which will provide basic and systematic data on microbial threats related to alien and invasive turtles present in the natural environment of Poland. It will also give more insight in the scope and the impact of the problem on epidemiology and public health.

1. Introduction. 2. Invasive turtle species. 3. Bacteria. 3.1. Salmonella spp. 3.1.1. Reptile Associated Salmonellosis (RAS). 3.2. Mycobacteria. 3.3. Other bacteria. 4. Parasitofauna of turtles. 4.1. Invasive turtles as a source of helminth invasion of European pond turtle. 4.2. Occurrence and invasiveness of alien parasites in native and alien turtles. 5. Viral infections. 6. Mycotic infection. 7. Conclusions

Mikrobiom człowieka

The human microbiome
M. Malinowska, B. Tokarz-Deptuła, W. Deptuła

1. Wprowadzenie 2. Mikrobiom skóry 3. Mikrobiom jamy ustnej 4. Mikrobiom przewodu pokarmowego 5. Mikrobiom dróg oddechowych 6. Mikrobiom układu moczowo-płciowego 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The human microbiome is represented by bacteria, archea, viruses, including bacteriophages, and fungi. These microorganisms colonize the human body and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis, including human immune status. Even though human microbiome is vital for the functioning of the human organism, it is still poorly understood, especially when it comes to archea, but also viruses and fungi. The aim of this study is to present the current state of knowlegde about the microorganisms inhabiting essential biotypes of the human body, i.e. the skin, the mouth and the digestive tract, as well as the respiratory and urogenital tract.

1. Introduction. 2. The skin microbiome. 3. The oral microbiome. 4. The digestive tract microbiome. 5. The respiratory tract microbiome. 6. The urinary tract microbiome. 7. Summary

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII 2020, 59, 2

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII 2020, 59, 2

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2020, 59, 2

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.