ROLA PROTEAZY ASPARTYLOWEJ W WIRULENCJI CANDIDA ALBICANS CZĘŚĆ II: EKSPRESJA SAP1-10 PROTEAZY ASPARTYLOWEJ PODCZAS ZAKAŻEŃ CANDIDA ALBICANS IN VIVO
1. Ekspresja genów proteazy aspartylowej podczas zakażeń Candida albicans in vivo. 2. Ekspresja genów proteazy aspartylowej u innych gatunków z rodzaju Candida. 3. Inhibitory proteazy aspartylowej. 4. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen known to produce several secreted hydrolytic enzymes, among which aspartic proteinases are considered to be a key virulence factor in pathogenesis. During last decade, Saps have been extensively studied in several in vivo studies based on human samples and animal models. It has been demonstrated that SAP5 and SAP9 are the most highly expressed proteinase genes in vivo. Despite many studies, very little is known about SAP7 and SAP8 role in C. albicans pathogenesis. Moreover, this review presents Sap regulation by nutritional supplementation and environmental factors, i.e. temperature, pH and the growth phase of C. albicans cells. In addition, Saps presence is discussed in Candida tropicalis as well as Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii as contribution of these non-albicans Candida strains in clinical infections is gradually increasing. Furthermore, the review underscores the need for studies using Sap enzymes as a potential drug-target due to their key role in virulence of Candida spp. The studies using the classical aspartic PI pepstatin A and HIV PIs provided evidence for the contribution of Sap to C. albicans virulence. Therefore, more conclusive studies concerning the 10 SAP gene expression and their regulation during infective process, association of Saps production with other virulence processes of C. albicans and Saps immune response in animal and human infection still have to be conducted.
1. Aspartic proteinase genes expression during Candida albicans infections in vivo. 2. Other non-albicans species that produce aspartic proteinases. 3. Aspartic proteinase inhibitors 4. Summary