Grzyby z rodzaju Neotyphodium – endofity traw
1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Charakterystyka grzybów z rodzaju Neotyphodium. 3. Metody identyfikacji. 4. Alkaloidy wytwarzane przez endofity. 5. Choroby zwierząt wywoływane przez alkaloidy produkowane przez grzyby z rodzaju Neotyphodium. 6. Wpływ alkaloidów na odporność traw na stresy. 6.1. Stresy abiotyczne. 6.2. Stresy biotyczne. 7. Występowanie endofitów w Polsce i na świecie. 8. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Endophytes are fungi of the genus Neotyphodium, that live in symbiosis with grasses. The effects of this symbiosis can be both negative and positive. The negative effect may be due to alkaloids produced by endophytes, that in higher concentrations are toxic to animals. On the other hand, the effect of symbiosis can be beneficial to plants, because the grass becomes more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses such as drought, pests or diseases. The most common alkaloid produce by Neotyphodium fungi are ergovaline and lolitrem B.
Current state of knowledge on the settlement of grasses by these fungi in Poland is rather small. These fungi are usually present in the seeds of Festuca ovina, F. pratensis, F. arundinacea and Lolium perenne. Endophytes were found in plants of permanent grasslands. The most often infected plants were from: Festuca pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. rubra, F. ovina and Lolium perenne. Traces of endophyte presence was also found in the ecotypes of Deschampsia caespitosa, F. capillata, F. gigantea, L. multiflorum, Poa pratensis and Phleum pratense. It was observed that fungi from the genus Neotyphodium occurring in the pasture sward can produce alkaloids, but its production is a variable trait, even within a single ecotype. The average ergovaline content in grass from the permanent pasture in some areas exceeded the threshold level above which disease symptoms in animals may occur.
1. Introduction. 2. Characterization of fungi from Neotyphodium genus. 3. Identification methods. 4. Alkaloids produced by endophytes. 5. Animal diseases caused by alkaloids produced by fungi of the genus Neotyphodium. 6. Effect of alkaloids on grass resistance to stress. 6.1. Abiotic stresses. 6.2. Biotic stresses. 7. The occurrence of endophytes in Poland and in the world. 8. Summary