All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

Składniki mikrobiomu jamy ustnej jako czynniki ryzyka zakażeń lokalnych i uogólnionych u pacjentów bez oraz z wadami wrodzonymi narządu żucia

Components of oral microbiome as potential risk factors of local and general infections in patients with and without congenital malformations of masticatory system
K. Perkowski, P. J. Zawadzki, B. Starościak, M. Dybicz, M. Padzik, M. Marczyńska-Stolarek, L. Chomicz

1. Czynniki wpływające na dynamikę środowiska jamy ustnej 2. Mikrobiota jamy ustnej u pacjentów bez wrodzonych wad narządu żucia 3. Wpływ wad narządu żucia i ich leczenia na środowisko jamy ustnej 4. Mikrobiota w jamie ustnej pacjentów z wrodzonymi wadami narządu żucia 4.1. Bakterie w jamie ustnej pacjentów z wadami narządu żucia leczonych ortodontycznie 4.2. Patogeniczne Protista w mikrobiomie jamy ustnej pacjentów z wadami narządu żucia leczonych ortodontycznie 4.3. Grzyby w jamie ustnej pacjentów z wadami narządu żucia leczonych ortodontycznie 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The oral cavity is an open system with complex and dynamic relations between the human host and the microbiota. Stomatognathic disorders, cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital malformations. Incidence varies from 1/500 to 1/2500 live births. In Poland, it appears every year in 800 newborns, as a single disorder or in syndromes. The environmental and hereditary factors , both have influence on the development of this pathology. Treatment of patients with cleft malformations is comprehensive and long-lasting, and includes orthodontic treatment. Both the malformation and the use of orthodontic appliances change significantly the condition of the patients’ oral cavities. Such changes have an impact on the oral cavity microbiota, shifting the composition of physiological microorganisms and evoking the appearance of opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria, fungi and/or protists. Analysis of the available literature implicates that co-infections with different opportunistic/ pathogenic strains are potentially serious risk factors of local and general complications in patients with various congenital malformations. It should be emphasized that the human oral cavity may act as a major, yet poorly known, reservoir of microorganisms that can induce clinically important infections. However, there are scarce data concerning the presence of opportunistic bacteria, fungi and protists in patients with congenital cleft malformations, thus, further studies are highly important to decrease a risk of medical complications.

1. Factors influencing the dynamics of oral cavity environment. 2. Oral cavity microbiota in patients without congenital malformations of the masticatory system. 3. Influence of malformations of the masticatory system and specific treatment on oral cavity environment. 4. Oral cavity microbiota in patients with malformations of masticatory system. 4.1. Bacteria in the oral cavity of patients with congenital malformations of the masticatory system treated orthodontically. 4.2. Pathogenic Protista in the oral microbiome of patients with congenital malformations of the masticatory system treated orthodontically. 4.3. Fungi in the oral cavity of the patients with malformations of the masticatory system treated orthodontically. 5. Summary

Moraxella catarrhalis – patogen górnych dróg oddechowych

Moraxella catarrhalis – a respiratory tract pathogen
K. Król-Turmińska, A. Olender

1. Wstęp. 2. Taksonomia. 3. Identyfikacja i hodowla. 4. Znaczenie kliniczne. 4.1. Zakażenia dzieci. 4.1.1. Ostre zapalenie ucha środkowego. 4.1.2. Zapalenie zatok. 4.1.3. Zapalenie płuc. 4.2. Zakażenia dorosłych. 4.2.1. Zapalenie krtani. 4.2.2. Zaostrzenie przewlekłej obturacyjnej choroby płuc. 4.2.3. Zapalenie płuc. 4.3. Zakażenia szpitalne. 4.4. Kolonizacja. 5. Mechanizmy patogenezy i czynniki wirulencji. 5.1. Adhezja. 5.2. Inwazja. 5.3. Tworzenie biofilmu. 5.4. Oporność na działanie dopełniacza 6. Lekooporność. 7. Potencjalna możliwość stosowania szczepień. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Moraxella catarrhalis is an important, exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen. For many years, M. catarrhalis was considered a harmless commensal of the human upper respiratory tract. M. catarrhalis is an emerging pathogen responsible for acute otitis media in children, and also for recurrent and persistent respiratory tract infections in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The prevalence of colonization of the upper respiratory tract is high in children, and the risk factors are as follows: a large concentration of people, low social status, and genetic predisposition. M. catarrhalis resembles commensal Neisseria species in culture, and thus, may be overlooked in samples from the human respiratory tract. The bacteria is highly susceptible to most of the antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of respiratory infections, although inherent resistance to penicillin, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and clindamycin has been documented. The major virulence factors are numerous adhesins, invasion abilities, complement resistance and biofilm formation. The recent works have elucidated mechanisms of pathogenesis focusing on vaccine development to reduce colonization rate and to prevent infections. Due to the fact that for many years a little clinical significance has been attributed to these bacteria, they have not yet been sufficiently studied, and therefore, there is an urgent need to carry out further research, especially based on molecular analysis.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy. 3. Identification and culture. 4. Clinical significance. 4.1. Infections in children. 4.1.1. Acute otitis media. 4.1.2. Sinusitis. 4.1.3. Pneumonia. 4.2. Infections in adults. 4.2.1. Laryngitis. 4.2.2. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 4.2.3. Pneumonia. 4.3. Nosocomial infections. 4.4. Colonization. 5. Pathogenesis mechanisms and virulence factors. 5.1. Adherence. 5.2. Invasion. 5.3. Biofilm formation. 5.4. Complement resistance. 6. Drug resistance. 7. Vaccines. 8. Summary

Mikrobiologiczny rozkład chlorofenoli w glebie

Microbial degradation of chlorophenols in soil
A. Nowak, I. Greń, A. Mrozik

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Ogólna charakterystyka i toksyczność chlorofenoli. 3. Ogólne mechanizmy mikrobiologicznego rozkładu chlorofenoli w warunkach tlenowych. 4. Rozkład chlorofenoli w glebie. 5. Metody wspomagania rozkładu chlorofenoli w glebie. 5.1. Biostymulacja. 5.2. Bioaugmentacja. 5.3. „Aktywna gleba”. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Chlorophenols are widely used in different branches of industry and agriculture as components of pesticides, disinfectants and wood treatment agents. They are hardly degradable and, therefore, can accumulate in the environment. One of the environment friendly methods of their removal from contaminated soil is microbial degradation. The efficiency of this process is determined by many abiotic and biotic factors. The first include the chemical structure of contaminants, their content and bioavailability as well as temperature, pH, soil texture, water content and oxygen concentration. In turn, biotic factors include the structure of microbial communities, stability and enzymatic activity of cells, their biomass, ability to chemotaxis and interactions between microorganisms. Several strategies have been developed to enhance the removal of chlorophenols from contaminated soil. The most effective in detoxifying these compounds are bioaugmentation, biostimulation and the use of “activated soil”. In this review, the influence of different factors on microbial degradation of chlorophenols in soil are described and the applicability of selected methods in their removal are discussed.

1. Introduction. 2. General characteristics and toxicity of chlorophenols. 3. General mechanisms of microbial degradation of chlorophenols in aerobic conditions. 4. Degradation of chlorophenols in soil. 5. Methods for enhancing the degradation of chlorophenols in soil. 5.1. Biostimulation. 5.2. Bioaugmentation. 5.3. “Activated soil”. 6. Summary

Pałeczki Gram-ujemne beztlenowo rosnące – diagnostyka i znaczenie kliniczne

Gram-negative anaerobic rods – diagnostics and clinical significance
M. Kierzkowska, A. Majewska, A. Sawicka-Grzelak, G. Młynarczyk

1. Wstęp. 2. Diagnostyka laboratoryjna beztlenowych pałeczek Gram-ujemnych. 3. Znaczenie kliniczne beztlenowych pałeczek Gram-ujemnych. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Among the broad spectrum of anaerobic bacteria constituting the normal flora of humans, some exhibit pathogenic potential and are responsible for serious infections. Gram-negative anaerobic rods belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas represent the most common cause of endogenous, usually mixed, infections. Anaerobes are important pathogens causing infections after abdominal or gynecologic surgery, oral-cavity infections and other infections originating from the mouth or abdomen. The virulence of different species depends on the combination of bacterial properties, including surface structures, metabolic functions, the ability to avoid the host’s defenses and the capacity to damage tissues. Special laboratory procedures are needed for the isolation and identification of this diverse group of bacteria. The identification to the species level, if based on phenotypic features, is often time-consuming and not always easy to carry out. Some molecular methods may help in the everyday clinical microbiological practice in laboratories dealing with the diagnostics of anaerobic infections. The taxonomy of the anaerobic bacteria is in a state of continuous change, due to the constant addition of new species and the reclassification of the old ones.

1. Introduction. 2. Laboratory diagnostics of Gram-negative anaerobic rods. 3. Clinical significance of Gram-negative anaerobic rods. 4. Summary

Ocena działania chemicznych preparatów dezynfekcyjnych przeznaczonych do powierzchni z zastosowaniem metod nośnikowych. Działanie bakteriobójcze, drożdżobójcze i sporobójcze

Evaluation of chemical agents intended for surface disinfection with the use of carrier methods. Bactericidal, yeasticidal and sporocidal activity
P. Tarka, K. Kanecki, K. Tomasiewicz

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Co obowiązuje dzisiaj? Metody zawiesinowe w ocenie działania bakterio/drożdzo/grzybo/sporobójczego chemicznych preparatów dezynfekcyjnych przeznaczonych do powierzchni. 3. Co będzie obowiązywało? Metody nośnikowe w ocenie działania bakterio/drożdżobójczego chemicznych preparatów dezynfekcyjnych przeznaczonych do powierzchni. 4. Interakcje między materiałem chusteczki, a środkiem dezynfekcyjnym. 5. Przedłużony efekt działania preparatu dezynfekcyjnego. 6. Czas kontaktu preparatu dezynfekcyjnego z powierzchnią. 7. Perspektywy standaryzacji badań działania sporobójczego chemicznych preparatów dezynfekcyjnych przeznaczonych do powierzchni z użyciem nośników. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Disinfection of surfaces in medical facilities is an important element in the control of hospital infections, including these caused by bacteria, viruses and spores. Disinfecting agents need to exhibit specific characteristics, namely potential killing activity towards test bacteria which was determined experimentally in the laboratory. The methods in which a suspension of test bacteria is subject to the given agent are most often applied. However, the suspension methods do not fully imitate the conditions present in reality. Thus, in order to determine the concentrations of chemical disinfecting agents, carrier methods are applied. The new European standard i.e. EN 16615 Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics – Quantitative test method for the evaluation of bactericidal and yeasticidal activity on non-porous surfaces with mechanical action employing wipes in the medical area (4-field test) – Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 2), is a completely new standard for testing chemical surface disinfecting agents. It allows not only to assess the reduction in the number of test bacteria on the carrier, but also to examine possible interactions between the disinfecting agent and the material of which tissues and cloths are made. Additionally, it enables the evaluation of possible transfer of bacteria to adjucent areas via wiping.

1. Introduction. 2. What is obligatory today? Suspension-based tests used for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chemical products used for surface cleaning. 3. What will be obligatory? Carrier tests used for the antimicrobial activity evaluation of chemical products used for surface cleaning. 4. Interaction between the carrier material and the disinfectant 5. Prolonged effect of disinfectants. 6. Interaction time between the disinfectant and the surface. 7. Estimation of anti-spore activity of disinfectants used for surface cleaning. Perspectives of standardization. 8. Summary

Najnowszy numer

Najnowszy numer

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2019, 58, 2

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.