All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

Różnorodność gatunkowa bakterii związanych z grzybami z rodzaju Tuber (trufla)

Species diversity of bacteria associated with fungi of the genus Tuber (truffles)
M. Siebyła, D. Hilszczańska

1. Charakterystyka trufli. 2. Różnorodność gatunkowa bakterii. 3. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete hypogeous fungi, which form ectomycorrhizae with roots of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. Their fruiting bodies are valued for their distinctive aroma. The aroma might be partially due to complex bacterial community which colonizes their fruiting bodies. Some bacterial species are also believed to promote the truffle’ fruitification due to the fixation of nitrogen inside the developing truffles. Although truffles, especially of the species Tuber aestivum, are getting more popular and are widely cultivated, little is still known about their biology, composition and the role of their associative microbes. The aim of this study was to present the current knowledge about the bacterial communities associated with black truffles and their potential influence on the truffle life cycle and maturation.

1. Characteristics of truffles. 2. Diversity of bacterial species. 3. Conclusion

Mikrobiom człowieka

The human microbiome
M. Malinowska, B. Tokarz-Deptuła, W. Deptuła

1. Wprowadzenie 2. Mikrobiom skóry 3. Mikrobiom jamy ustnej 4. Mikrobiom przewodu pokarmowego 5. Mikrobiom dróg oddechowych 6. Mikrobiom układu moczowo-płciowego 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The human microbiome is represented by bacteria, archea, viruses, including bacteriophages, and fungi. These microorganisms colonize the human body and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis, including human immune status. Even though human microbiome is vital for the functioning of the human organism, it is still poorly understood, especially when it comes to archea, but also viruses and fungi. The aim of this study is to present the current state of knowlegde about the microorganisms inhabiting essential biotypes of the human body, i.e. the skin, the mouth and the digestive tract, as well as the respiratory and urogenital tract.

1. Introduction. 2. The skin microbiome. 3. The oral microbiome. 4. The digestive tract microbiome. 5. The respiratory tract microbiome. 6. The urinary tract microbiome. 7. Summary

Zastosowanie bakteryjnych pęcherzyków zewnątrzbłonowych w konstrukcji szczepionek

Application of the bacterial outer membrane vesicles in vaccine design
J. Klim, R. Godlewska

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Biogeneza pęcherzyków zewnątrzbłonowych. 3. Funkcje pęcherzyków zewnątrzkomórkowych. 3.1. Udział w odpowiedzi na czynniki stresogenne. 3.2. Udział w transporcie pozakomórkowym. 3.3. Udział w tworzeniu biofilmu. 4. Pęcherzyki zewnątrzbłonowe w konstrukcji szczepionek. 4.1. Neisseria meningitidis. 4.2. Vibrio cholerae. 4.3. Bordetella pertussis. 4.4. Chlamydia trachomatis. 4.5. Burkholderia pseudomallei. 4.6. Acinetobacter baumannii. 4.7. Francisella noatunensis. 4.8. Shigella spp. 4.9. Campylobacter jejuni. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular structures produced by most gram‑negative bacteria, including pathogens of humans and animals. OMVs play an important role in the physiology of microorganisms and are an integral part of many biological processes. Following the discovery that they are able to transport many biomolecules, also these which have the ability to interact with the immune system, their potential use as non‑replicating vaccines has become an important aspect of immunotherapeutic researches. These nano-sized elements exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune response, thanks to the ability to deliver naturally or artificially incorporated antigens within their structure. First vaccine based on outer membrane vesicles was developed almost 30 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This review presents some basic information on biogenesis and functions of OMVs. It also provides examples of pathogens, whose OMVs (in natural or modified form) have been used in the development of immunogenic vaccines against the organisms from which the vesicles had been obtained. OMVs are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and may become important part of biotechnology research, not limited to medical applications.

1. Introduction. 2. Outer membrane vesicles biogenesis. 3. Biological functions of outer membrane vesicles. 3.1. Role in response to stressors. 3.2. Role in the extracellular transport. 3.3. Role in biofilm formation. 4. OMVs in vaccine construction. 4.1. Neisseria meningitidis. 4.2. Vibrio cholerae. 4.3. Bordetella pertussis. 4.4. Chlamydia trachomatis. 4.5. Burkholderia pseudomallei. 4.6. Acinetobacter baumannii. 4.7. Francisella noatunensis. 4.8. Shigella spp. 4.9. Campylobacter jejuni. 5. Conclusions

Fruktofilne bakterie kwasu mlekowego (FLAB) – nowa grupa heterofermentatywnych mikroorganizmów ze środowiska roślinnego

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) – a new group of heterofermentative microorganisms from the plant environment
K. Gustaw, M. Michalak, M. Polak-Berecka, A. Waśko

1. Wstęp. 2. Występowanie. 3. Cechy morfologiczne FLAB. 4. Cechy fizjologiczne FLAB. 5. Właściwości biochemiczne FLAB. 6. Filogenetyka. 7. Krótka charakterystyka wybranych gatunków z rodzaju Fructobacillus. 7.1. Fructobacillus fructosus. 7.2. Fructobacillus ficulneus. 7.3. Fructobacillus durionis. 7.4. Fructobacillus psedoficulneus. 7.5. Fructobacillus tropaeoli. 7.6. Lactobacillus kunkeei. 7.7. Lactobacillus florum. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Recently, a unique kind of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e. fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), has been described. This specific group prefers D-fructose over D-glucose as a carbon source to growth. They can be found in fructose rich environments such as flowers, fruits and food products made of fermented fruits, for example tempoyak. In recent years, it has been revealed that insects which feed on food high in fructose are an abundant source of fructophilic bacteria. Bacterial communities inhabiting intestinal tracts of honeybees, bumblebees, Camponotus ants and tropical fruit flies were examined. At present FLAB includes six species: Fructobacillus fructosus, Fructobacillus durionis, Fructobacillus ficulneus, Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Fructobacillus tropaeoli and Lactobacillus kunkeei classified by Endo as obligatorily fructophilic, and only one species, namely Lactobacillus florum, as facultatively fructophilic. Latest publications describe new species of potential fructophilic characteristics, which suggests that there is still much to discover in that group.

1. Introduction. 2. Occurrence / Habitat. 3. Morphological characteristics of FLAB. 4. Physiological characteristics of FLAB. 5. Biochemical properties of FLAB. 6. Philogenetics. 7. Characterization of selected species of the genus Fructobacillus. 7.1. Fructobacillus fructosus. 7.2. Fructobacillus ficulneus. 7.3. Fructobacillus durionis. 7.4. Fructobacillus psedoficulneus. 7.5. Fructobacillus tropaeoli. 7.6. Lactobacillus kunkeei. 7.7. Lactobacillus florum. 8. Summary

Bacteroides spp. – znaczenie kliniczne, lekooporność i metody jej oznaczania

Bacteroides spp. – clinical significance, antibiotic resistance and identification methods
S. Niestępski, M. Harnisz E. Korzeniewska, A. Osińska, B. Dziuba

1. Wstęp. 2. Systematyka bakterii z rodzaju Bacteroides. 3. Znaczenie kliniczne Bacteroides spp. 4. Oporność na leki u Bacteroides spp.
4.1. Bakterie z rodzaju Bacteroides jako rezerwuar determinantów oporności. 4.2. Oporność na środki przeciwdrobnoustrojowe. 5. Metody określania lekowrażliwości. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Anaerobic Bacteroides species are dominant microbiota of the digestive tract of mammals. Along with other symbiotic bacteria located in the gastrointestinal tract, they contribute to the proper functioning of the organism. Some Bacteroides species are highly pathogenic. Virulence of these bacteria is related to their polysaccharide capsule, lipopolysaccharide and a variety of enzymes and enterotoxin. In recent years, an increase of antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides spp. has been noted, therefore the changes to the antibiotic resistance patterns in these bacteria should be monitored. This study summarizes the current knowledge about the bacteria of Bacteroides species.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy of Bacteroides species. 3. Clinical significance of Bacteroides spp. 4. Antibiotic resistance. 4.1. Bacteroides species as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. 4.2. Antimicrobial resistance. 5. Methods of drug resistance determination. 6. Summary

Najnowszy numer

Najnowszy numer

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2018, 57, 1

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.