All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

Założenia i perspektywy wykorzystania żywych wektorów bakteryjnych we współczesnej wakcynologii

Principles and perspectives of using live bacterial vectors in modern vaccinology
K. Roeske, R. Stachowiak, J. Bielecki

1. Wakcynologia – rys historyczny i perspektywy. 2. Swoista (nabyta) odpowiedź immunologiczna. 3. Komórki efektorowe odpowiedzi typu komórkowego. 4. Prezentacja antygenu i jego rozpoznanie przez limfocyty. 5. Pamięć immunologiczna. 6. Szczepionki indukujące odpowiedź komórkową. 7. Szczepionki podjednostkowe. 8. Adiuwanty. 9. Szczepionki wektorowe. 10. Bakterie patogenne jako wektory szczepionkowe. 11. Bakterie niepatogenne jako wektory szczepionkowe. 12. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Various strategies can be used to deliver antigens to the cytosol of antigen presenting cells, e.g. using nanoparticles, liposomes, immune stimulating complexes, viruses or bacteria. Among them, the use of bacterial carriers constitutes probably the most studied strategy. Depending on the extra- or intracellular life cycle of the pathogen, different immune responses are required for protection. Vaccines formulated on the basis of killed whole cells or isolated cell fractions tend to induce strong antibody response, however, they are ineffective at inducing cellular immunity. Due to these characteristics such antigens are used mainly to immunize against extracellular pathogens. Conversely, live attenuated mutants induce a broad range of immune responses including CD8+ T cell response, thereby leading to effective immunization against intracellular pathogens. Besides adjuvant properties provided by carried molecular patterns, live bacterial carriers have other important advantages, such as the ability to mimic natural infection and possibility to be administered in a needle-free manner. Remarkably, vector-based vaccines can be designed to enable induction of immune response against their own or carried heterologous antigens. Both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms are used in the next generation vaccine design, however, due to the potential risk of conversion to a virulent strain and causing infection or the loss of immunogenic potency, pathogenic vectors are less likely to use. Questions concerning safety which have arisen with the advent of live-attenuated bacterial vectors made the researchers turn their attention to non-pathogenic bacteria.

1. Vaccinology – historical background and perspectives. 2. Acquired immunity. 3. Effector cells of cell-mediated immune response. 4. Antigen presentation and its recognition by T-cells. 5. Immunological memory. 6. Vaccines inducing cellular immune response. 7. Subunit vaccines. 8. Adjuvants. 9. Vector vaccines. 10. Pathogenic bacteria as vaccine vectors. 11. Non-pathogenic bacteria as vaccine vectors. 12. Summary

Znaczenie uropatogennych szczepów Escherichia coli (UPEC) w etiopatogenezie zakażeń układu moczowego

Significance of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC) in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections
S. J. Chmielewska, K. Fiedoruk, T. Daniluk, M. Ściepuk, D. Kaczmarzyk, K. Leszczyńska

1. Wstęp. 2. Klasyfikacja zakażeń układu moczowego (ZUM). 3. Przyczyny, czynniki ryzyka oraz objawy ZUM. 4. Czynniki etiologiczna ZUM. 4.1. Zakażenia układu moczowego u osób dorosłych. 4.2. ZUM u dzieci. 4.3. ZUM u osób starszych. 5. Uropatogenne szczepy Escherichia coli. 5.1. Adhezyny. 5.2. Odpowiedź immunologiczna gospodarza na zakażenie UPEC. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most widespread infections, particularly among women (40–50%) as well as newborns, infants and elderly persons. In addition, recurrent episodes of UTIs are common and frequently become chronic. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of UTIs, bothcommunity- and hospital-acquired, followed by other Enterobacteriaceae (Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp.), Pseudomonas spp. and Gram-positive cocci. The majority of UTIs are caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) characterized by the presence of various adhesive fimbriae (pili) e.g., type 1 or P, S and Afa/Dr fimbriae, the crucial virulence factors for their pathogenic capabilities. For example, type 1 fimbriae are common among cystitis-associated UPEC, P fimbriae are characteristic adhesins in E. coli pyelonephritis, and Dr fimbriae UPEC strains are frequently isolated (40%) from pregnancy-associated pyelonephritis cases. In consequence, Dr+ E. coli may contribute to serious pregnancy complications, including premature births or damage of the fetus. Therefore, the more extensive knowledge about mechanisms of pathogenesis of UPEC strains may facilitate development of novel diagnostic methods and might prove essential for better risk assessment for patients with UTIs.

1. Introduction. 2. Classification of urinary tract infections (UTIs). 3. The causes, risk factors and symptoms of UTIs. 4. Etiological factors of UTIs. 4.1. Urinary tract infections in adults. 4.2. UTIs in children population. 4.3. UTIs in the elderly. 5. Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). 5.1. Fimbriae. 5.2. Host immune response against UPEC colonization of the urinary tract. 6. Summary

Składniki mikrobiomu jamy ustnej jako czynniki ryzyka zakażeń lokalnych i uogólnionych u pacjentów bez oraz z wadami wrodzonymi narządu żucia

Components of oral microbiome as potential risk factors of local and general infections in patients with and without congenital malformations of masticatory system
K. Perkowski, P. J. Zawadzki, B. Starościak, M. Dybicz, M. Padzik, M. Marczyńska-Stolarek, L. Chomicz

1. Czynniki wpływające na dynamikę środowiska jamy ustnej 2. Mikrobiota jamy ustnej u pacjentów bez wrodzonych wad narządu żucia 3. Wpływ wad narządu żucia i ich leczenia na środowisko jamy ustnej 4. Mikrobiota w jamie ustnej pacjentów z wrodzonymi wadami narządu żucia 4.1. Bakterie w jamie ustnej pacjentów z wadami narządu żucia leczonych ortodontycznie 4.2. Patogeniczne Protista w mikrobiomie jamy ustnej pacjentów z wadami narządu żucia leczonych ortodontycznie 4.3. Grzyby w jamie ustnej pacjentów z wadami narządu żucia leczonych ortodontycznie 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The oral cavity is an open system with complex and dynamic relations between the human host and the microbiota. Stomatognathic disorders, cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital malformations. Incidence varies from 1/500 to 1/2500 live births. In Poland, it appears every year in 800 newborns, as a single disorder or in syndromes. The environmental and hereditary factors , both have influence on the development of this pathology. Treatment of patients with cleft malformations is comprehensive and long-lasting, and includes orthodontic treatment. Both the malformation and the use of orthodontic appliances change significantly the condition of the patients’ oral cavities. Such changes have an impact on the oral cavity microbiota, shifting the composition of physiological microorganisms and evoking the appearance of opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria, fungi and/or protists. Analysis of the available literature implicates that co-infections with different opportunistic/ pathogenic strains are potentially serious risk factors of local and general complications in patients with various congenital malformations. It should be emphasized that the human oral cavity may act as a major, yet poorly known, reservoir of microorganisms that can induce clinically important infections. However, there are scarce data concerning the presence of opportunistic bacteria, fungi and protists in patients with congenital cleft malformations, thus, further studies are highly important to decrease a risk of medical complications.

1. Factors influencing the dynamics of oral cavity environment. 2. Oral cavity microbiota in patients without congenital malformations of the masticatory system. 3. Influence of malformations of the masticatory system and specific treatment on oral cavity environment. 4. Oral cavity microbiota in patients with malformations of masticatory system. 4.1. Bacteria in the oral cavity of patients with congenital malformations of the masticatory system treated orthodontically. 4.2. Pathogenic Protista in the oral microbiome of patients with congenital malformations of the masticatory system treated orthodontically. 4.3. Fungi in the oral cavity of the patients with malformations of the masticatory system treated orthodontically. 5. Summary

Moraxella catarrhalis – patogen górnych dróg oddechowych

Moraxella catarrhalis – a respiratory tract pathogen
K. Król-Turmińska, A. Olender

1. Wstęp. 2. Taksonomia. 3. Identyfikacja i hodowla. 4. Znaczenie kliniczne. 4.1. Zakażenia dzieci. 4.1.1. Ostre zapalenie ucha środkowego. 4.1.2. Zapalenie zatok. 4.1.3. Zapalenie płuc. 4.2. Zakażenia dorosłych. 4.2.1. Zapalenie krtani. 4.2.2. Zaostrzenie przewlekłej obturacyjnej choroby płuc. 4.2.3. Zapalenie płuc. 4.3. Zakażenia szpitalne. 4.4. Kolonizacja. 5. Mechanizmy patogenezy i czynniki wirulencji. 5.1. Adhezja. 5.2. Inwazja. 5.3. Tworzenie biofilmu. 5.4. Oporność na działanie dopełniacza 6. Lekooporność. 7. Potencjalna możliwość stosowania szczepień. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Moraxella catarrhalis is an important, exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen. For many years, M. catarrhalis was considered a harmless commensal of the human upper respiratory tract. M. catarrhalis is an emerging pathogen responsible for acute otitis media in children, and also for recurrent and persistent respiratory tract infections in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The prevalence of colonization of the upper respiratory tract is high in children, and the risk factors are as follows: a large concentration of people, low social status, and genetic predisposition. M. catarrhalis resembles commensal Neisseria species in culture, and thus, may be overlooked in samples from the human respiratory tract. The bacteria is highly susceptible to most of the antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of respiratory infections, although inherent resistance to penicillin, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and clindamycin has been documented. The major virulence factors are numerous adhesins, invasion abilities, complement resistance and biofilm formation. The recent works have elucidated mechanisms of pathogenesis focusing on vaccine development to reduce colonization rate and to prevent infections. Due to the fact that for many years a little clinical significance has been attributed to these bacteria, they have not yet been sufficiently studied, and therefore, there is an urgent need to carry out further research, especially based on molecular analysis.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy. 3. Identification and culture. 4. Clinical significance. 4.1. Infections in children. 4.1.1. Acute otitis media. 4.1.2. Sinusitis. 4.1.3. Pneumonia. 4.2. Infections in adults. 4.2.1. Laryngitis. 4.2.2. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 4.2.3. Pneumonia. 4.3. Nosocomial infections. 4.4. Colonization. 5. Pathogenesis mechanisms and virulence factors. 5.1. Adherence. 5.2. Invasion. 5.3. Biofilm formation. 5.4. Complement resistance. 6. Drug resistance. 7. Vaccines. 8. Summary

Mikrobiologiczny rozkład chlorofenoli w glebie

Microbial degradation of chlorophenols in soil
A. Nowak, I. Greń, A. Mrozik

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Ogólna charakterystyka i toksyczność chlorofenoli. 3. Ogólne mechanizmy mikrobiologicznego rozkładu chlorofenoli w warunkach tlenowych. 4. Rozkład chlorofenoli w glebie. 5. Metody wspomagania rozkładu chlorofenoli w glebie. 5.1. Biostymulacja. 5.2. Bioaugmentacja. 5.3. „Aktywna gleba”. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Chlorophenols are widely used in different branches of industry and agriculture as components of pesticides, disinfectants and wood treatment agents. They are hardly degradable and, therefore, can accumulate in the environment. One of the environment friendly methods of their removal from contaminated soil is microbial degradation. The efficiency of this process is determined by many abiotic and biotic factors. The first include the chemical structure of contaminants, their content and bioavailability as well as temperature, pH, soil texture, water content and oxygen concentration. In turn, biotic factors include the structure of microbial communities, stability and enzymatic activity of cells, their biomass, ability to chemotaxis and interactions between microorganisms. Several strategies have been developed to enhance the removal of chlorophenols from contaminated soil. The most effective in detoxifying these compounds are bioaugmentation, biostimulation and the use of “activated soil”. In this review, the influence of different factors on microbial degradation of chlorophenols in soil are described and the applicability of selected methods in their removal are discussed.

1. Introduction. 2. General characteristics and toxicity of chlorophenols. 3. General mechanisms of microbial degradation of chlorophenols in aerobic conditions. 4. Degradation of chlorophenols in soil. 5. Methods for enhancing the degradation of chlorophenols in soil. 5.1. Biostimulation. 5.2. Bioaugmentation. 5.3. “Activated soil”. 6. Summary

Najnowszy numer

Najnowszy numer

2018, 57, 1

O Towarzystwie


Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.