All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

Probiotyki a wybrane schorzenia u ludzi

Probiotics and the selected diseases in humans
B. Tokarz-Deptuła, J. Śliwa-Dominiak, M. Adamiak, W. Deptuła

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Probiotyki, a wybrane schorzenia u ludzi. 2.1. Biegunki. 2.2. Alergie. 2.3. Procesy nowotworowe. 2.4. Infekcje wirusem HIV. 3. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Probiotics are supplements or foods based on microorganisms isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans. They have a highly positive effect on macroorganisms reducing the risk of potential pathogenic bacterial growth and influencing the host immune response. It has been proved that the microflora in the digestive tract ecosystem is conditioned by the presence of diarrhea and allergies Also other disorders, recorded already in the neonatal period, when the immune system was differentiating in the direction of pro-inflammatory and/or pro-alergic, can have an impact on the microflora. The administration of probiotic microorganisms and (or) chemotherapeutic agents, including antibiotics, improves the quality of the therapy because it results in the restoration of the balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory response of the gastrointestinal tract in such diseases as diarrhea, allergies, tumor processes, as well as in viral infections, including HIV infection.

1. Introduction. 2. Probiotics and the selected diseases and infections in humans. 2.1. Diarrhea. 2.2. Allergy. 2.3. Cancer processes. 2.4. HIV infection. 3. Summary

Bakterie kwasu mlekowego (LAB) jako wektory do konstrukcji szczepionek

LAB (lactic acid bacteria) as live vectors for the development of safe mucosal vaccines
A. Wyszyńska, P. Kobierecka, E. K. Jagusztyn-Krynicka

1. Charakterystyka bakterii kwasu mlekowego o potencjalnym zastosowaniu w immunoprofilaktyce. 2. LAB jako nośniki heterologicznych antygenów bakteryjnych, pasożytniczych i wirusowych. 2.1. Porównanie drogi podania. 2.2. Rola lokalizacji i ilości antygenu. 2.3. Porównanie skuteczności działania żywych szczepów LAB i cząstek GEM (Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix). 3. LAB jako szczepionki DNA. 4. Modulacja działania układu odpornościowego. 5. LAB w immunoterapiach chorób nowotworowych. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that include many species, such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and others. They have health benefits such as immunomodulation and production of antimicrobial substances active against gastric and intestinal pathogens and other microbes. Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of LAB as mucosal delivery vectors. They represent an attractive alternative for vaccinations employing attenuated bacterial pathogens. In this review, we focused on recent results on the use of lactic acid bacteria as delivery vehicles for heterologous antigens, cytokines, and DNA vaccines. To date, many bacterial, parasitic and viral antigens have been successfully expressed in LAB strains, mainly in L. lactis and Lb. plantarum, and their positive immunological outcomes were documented using mainly mouse model and oral, intragastric or intranasal route of immunization.

1. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria with immunoprophylactic effects. 2. LAB as delivery vehicles for bacterial, parasitic and viral antigens. 2.1. Comparison of administration routes. 2.2. Amount and localization of antigens. 2.3. Comparison of live and killed LAB vaccines – GEM (Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix) particles, 3. LAB as a DNA vaccine. 4. Modulation of immune system. 5. LAB in cancer therapy. 6. Conclusions

Bakterie Xenorhabdus i Photorhabdus, nicienie entomopatogeniczne i owady – funkcjonowanie w złożonym układzie symbiont – pasożyt – żywiciel

Bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, entomopathogenic nematodes and insects – their role in the complex symbiont-parasite- -host relationship
K. Kucharska, D. Kucharski, B. Zajdel

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Powstawanie pasożytnictwa nicieni u owadów. 3. Funkcjonowanie układu nicienie entomopatogeniczne – bakterie mutualistyczne – owady. 4. Mechanizmy odpornościowe owadów. 4.1. Odporność fizjologiczna: behawioralna. 4.2. Odporność fizjologiczna: bariery anatomiczno-fizjologiczne. 4.3. Odporność nabyta: polipeptydy i białka odpornościowe. 4.4. Odporność wewnętrzna: komórkowa i humoralna. 5. Mechanizmy odpornościowe nicieni entomopatogenicznych i mutualistycznych bakterii. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Bioinsecticides based on nematodes are becoming increasingly popular agents for pest control. Nematodes used in these insecticides owe their properties to the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Representatives of two genera – Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus can be found in the digestive tracts of, respectively, Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae nematodes. Nematodes have a number of properties, allowing them to penetrate the host integument, breaking the immune defenses, multiplicating in his body, killing the host and finally producing invasive forms, viable in the external environment. Bacterial symbionts are responsible for some of these abilities, since they produce toxins lethal to the victim and maintain adequate conditions for the development of their vectors. The bacteria are an example of one organism living in another as a symbiont, and functioning as a pathogen for another one. The relationship nematodes-mutualistic bacteria-insect is formed. The immune system has the ability to fight against insect entomopathogens, however, a variaty of adaptation mechanisms of parasites and symbionts, molecular mimicry and destruction of phagocytic cells among others, enables them to survive in the host. With an effective biocidal properties, nematodes which are in a mutualist relationship with bacteria, become perfect and safe for use in the environment pest control agents. Transgenic plants producing Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus toxins can be as effective as those producing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

1. Introduction. 2. The emergence of nematode parasitism in insects. 3. System functioning of entomopathogenic nematodes-mutualistic bacteria-insects. 4. Defense mechanisms of insects. 4.1. Physiological resistance: behavioral aspect. 4.2. Physiological resistance: anatomical-physiological barriers. 4.3. Acquired immunity: polypeptides and immune proteins. 4.4. Internal resistance: cellular and humoral factors. 5. Immune mechanisms of entomopathogenic nematodes and mutualist bacteria. 6. Summary

ECA – wspólny antygen powierzchniowy pałeczek rodziny Enterobacteriaceae

ECA – common surface antigen of the bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family
K. Kasperkiewicz, M. Noszczyńska, A. Piszczek

1. Historia odkrycia. 2. Występowanie. 3. Charakterystyka chemiczna. 4. Formy ECA. 5. Biosynteza i jej kontrola genetyczna. 6. Właściwości immunogenne. 7. Lokalizacja ECA w komórce bakteryjnej i sposoby jego detekcji. 8. Rola biologiczna. 9. Zastosowanie. 10. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Almost all the strains of bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family share at least one common antigenic component, ECA, which is not present in other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. From the observations made with immunofluorescence and immunoferritin techniques, it has been concluded that ECA is localized in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative enteric bacteria. ECA is a glycolipid consisting of linear trisaccharide repeating units composed of [→3)-α-D-Fucp4NAc-(1→4)-β-D-ManpNAcA-(1→4)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1→]. It occurs in three structural forms: ECAPG linked to phosphatidylglycerol, ECALPS anchored to LPS core region and ECACYC not expressed on the surface. ECA is believed to be connected to the LPS outer core. However, it should be emphasized that Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 mutants defective in outer core synthesis were also ECA-immunogenic. The genes involved in ECA biosynthesis are located in the chromosomal wec gene cluster, from wecA to wecG and the ECA expressions is downregulated at host temperature. So far, ECA has been thoroughly analyzed at the structural and genetic level, however, its significance in vivo has been investigated in relatively few studies. ECA has been linked to pathogenesis in several species of bacteria, although this function seems to differ between the species. ECA has been shown to be involved in the flagellar assembly and motility in Serratia marcescens. Also, the ECA-negative mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium proved to be significantly less virulent than the parental strain. ECA as a marker of Enterobacteriaceae family is a valuable indicator of water and food contaminations with enteric bacteria.

1. Discovery history. 2. Occurrence. 3. Chemical characterization. 4. Forms of ECA. 5. Genetics of ECA biosynthesis. 6. The immunogenic properties. 7. Localization of ECA in the bacterial cell and methods of its detection. 8. Biological significance. 9. Application. 10. Summary

Przeciwdrobnoustrojowe właściwości naturalnych jonoforów karboksylowych i ich pochodnych

Antimicrobial properties of natural carboxylic ionophores and their derivatives
J. Stefańska

1. Wstęp. 2. Właściwości biologiczne jonoforów karboksylowych i ich zastosowanie. 3. Aktywność przeciwdrobnoustrojowa naturalnych jonoforów karboksylowych i ich pochodnych. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Polyether ionophore antibiotics are a large group of natural substances, produced by various species of Streptomyces. These agents possess the ability to transport metal cations across lipid membranes, interfere with natural ion transport systems in cells and exhibit a variety of biological properties (antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiinflammatory or antiacancer). Several ionophores (e.g. lasalocid, monensin, narasin, salinomycin) are commercially applied as coccidiostatics in veterinary. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of antimicrobial activities of selected ionofores – lasalocid, monensin and salinomycin, and their derivatives.

1. Introduction. 2. Biological properties of carboxylic ionophores and their application. 3. Antimicrobial activity of natural carboxylic ionophores and their derivatives. 4. Summary

Najnowszy numer

Najnowszy numer

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2018, 57, 4

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.