All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

Niepandemiczne koronawirusy człowieka – charakterystyka i diagnostyka

Non-pandemic human coronaviruses – characteristics and diagnostics
E. Abramczuk, K. Pancer, W. Gut, B. Litwińska

1. Historia. 2. Taksonomia i występowanie. 3. Struktura i namnażanie się koronawirusów. 4. Receptory komórkowe wykorzystywane przez koronawirusy człowieka. 5. Zakażenie człowieka – transmisja, objawy, charakterystyka. 6. Diagnostyka. 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: In this article, the characteristics of human coronaviruses (HCoV) are presented. Currently, six human coronaviruses are known: HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-SARS and HCoV-MERS. The first human coronaviruses were described in the sixties of the twentieth century, the last one, HCoV-MERS, in 2012 y. Coronaviruses can cause mild, asymptomatic infections as well as severe respiratory diseases, like pneumonia and bronchiolitis. The symptoms of HCoV infection are mainly: fever, nasopharyngitis, cough, bronchiolitis, pneumonia. Infections due to HCoV occur during the whole human life, but aremost frequent in children. They can occur throughout the year, but are most common in the winter season. Treatment of HCoV infections is usually symptomatic. Diagnosis of HCoV is mainly based on molecular technics such as quantitative PCR. Serological tests are only used for epidemiological purposes.

1. History. 2. Taxonomy and occurrence. 3. The structure and amplification of human coronaviruses. 4. Cell receptors used by human coronaviruses. 5. Human infection – transmission, symptoms, characteristics. 6. Diagnostics. 7. Summary

Plazmidy jako wektory do terapii genowej

Plasmids – vectors for gene therapy
P. Zaleski, P. Wawrzyniak, A. Sobolewska, G. Płucienniczak

1. Wstęp. 2. Naturalna modyfikacja DNA jako przeszkoda w stosowaniu plazmidów w terapii genowej. 3. Bezpieczeństwo użycia plazmidowego DNA. 4. Wprowadzenie pDNA do komórek eukariotycznych. 5. Los plazmidowego DNA po wprowadzeniu do komórek eukariotycznych. 6. Terapie genowe bazujące na pDNA. 7. Inne kierunki rozwoju terapii genowych opartych na plazmidowym DNA. 7.1 Baktofekcja. 7.2. Alternatywna terapia genowa (Alternative Gene Therapy – AGT). 7.3. Hydrożele. 7.4. Minikoliste DNA. 7.5. Mininici DNA. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The first confirmed transfer of genetic material in human was performed in 1990. Ever since, gene therapy was considered to be one of the best promising treatments of genetic diseases. The sine qua non of successful gene therapy are efficient genetic vectors. Recently, the most frequently used vectors in clinical trials for genetic therapies are virus-based and plasmid-based. A range of features makes plasmids useful for gene therapy, however, they have also some characteristics which make it difficult to consider plasmids as ideal vectors. The main goal of this article is to address and describe these unfavourable factors.

1. Introduction. 2. Natural modification of DNA as an obstacle to the use of plasmids for gene therapy. 3. Plasmid DNA usage safety. 4. Plasmid DNA entry into eucaryotic cells. 5. Post-entry fate of plasmid DNA in eucaryotic cells. 6. pDNA-based gene therapies. 7. Alternative routes of development of pDNA-based gene therapies. 7.1. Baktofection. 7.2. Alternative Gene Therapy – AGT. 7.3. Hydrogels. 7.4. DNA minicircles. 7.5. DNA ministrings. 8. Summary

Bakteryjne białka wielofunkcyjne

Bacterial moonlighting proteins
J. Płaczkiewicz

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Udział białek wielofunkcyjnych w bakteryjnej patogenezie. 3. Wpływ białek wielofunkcyjnych na układ odpornościowy. 4. Obecność białek wielofunkcyjnych u bakterii kwasu mlekowego. 5. Transport białek wielofunkcyjnych na powierzchnię komórek bakteryjnych. 6. Ewolucja białek wielofunkcyjnych. 7. Wykrywanie białek wielofunkcyjnych. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Existence of moonlighting proteins in microorganisms is a known phenomenon, yet still not well understood. Moonlighting proteins have at least two independent biological functions, which must be performed by one polypeptide chain without separation into protein domains. Most of these proteins, beside their role in the cytoplasm, play an important role outside of the cell i.e. they take part in the process of pathogenesis by binding and activating host’s plasminogen. The existence of moonlighting proteins complicates the understanding of pathogenicity and virulence of many common bacteria as well as their role in commensal bacteria. Many of moonlighting proteins occurring in commensal bacteria appear to perform similar functions to proteins discovered in pathogenic bacteria, e.g. binding extracellular matrix. Moonlighting proteins found in bacteria are mostly housekeeping enzymes, especially from the glycolytic pathway, such as enolase, aldolase, dehydrogenase as well as heat-shock proteins and transcriptional factors.

1. Introduction. 2. Involvement of moonlighting proteins in bacterial pathogenesis. 3. Effect of moonlighting proteins on the immune system. 4. Moonlighting proteins in lactic acid bacteria.5. Transportation of moonlighting proteins to the bacterial surface. 6. Evolution of moonlighting proteins. 7. Detection of moonlighting proteins. 8. Summary

Gatunki koagulazododatnie rodzaju Staphylococcus – taksonomia, chorobotwórczość

Coagulase-positive species of the genus Staphylococcus– taxonomy, pathogenicity
W. Kmieciak, E. M. Szewczyk

1. Wstęp. 2. Koagulaza gronkowcowa. 3. Staphylococcus aureus. 4. Gronkowce grupy SIG. 4.1. Staphylococcus intermedius. 4.2. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. 4.3. Staphylococcus delphini. 5. Staphylococcus hyicus. 6. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans. 7. Staphylococcus lutrae. 8. Staphylococcus agnetis. 9. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Staphylococci constitute an important component of the human microbiome. Most of them are coagulase-negative species, whose importance in the pathogenesis of human infections has been widely recognized and is being documented on a regular basis. Until recently, the only well-known coagulase-positive staphylococcus species recognized as human pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Previously, the ability to produce coagulase was used as its basic diagnostic feature, because other coagulase-positive species were associated with animal hosts. Progress in the laboratory medicine, in which automatic or semi-automatic systems identify the staphylococci species, revealed a phenomenon of spreading of the coagulase positive staphylococci to new niches and hosts, as they are being isolated from human clinical materials with increasing frequency. As a result, many reaserchers and laboratories have turned their attention to the phenomenon, which caused an inflow of new data on these species. An increasingly expansive pathogenic potential of coagulase-positive staphylococci against humans has been documented. In the presented study, recent data on both S. aureus and species previously considered to be animal, i.e. S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, S. delphini, S. lutrae, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. hyicus as well as newly described species S. agnetis, were shown.

1. Introduction. 2. Staphylococcal coagulase. 3. Staphylococcus aureus. 4. Staphylococcus intermedius Group species. 4.1. Staphylococcus intermedius. 4.2. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. 4.3. Staphylococcus delphini. 5. Staphylococcus hyicus. 6. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans. 7. Staphylococcus lutrae. 8. Staphylococcus agnetis. 9. Summary

Najnowszy numer

Najnowszy numer

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2017, 56, 4

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.