All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

Mikrobiologiczne aspekty gospodarki gnojowicą

Microbiological aspects of slurry management
K. Skowron, J. Bauza-Kaszewska, A. Kaczmarek, A. Budzyńska, E. Gospodarek

1. Wstęp. 2. Mikroflora gnojowicy. 3. Możliwości mikrobiologicznej kontaminacji środowiska. 4. Problem antybiotykooporności wśród szczepów z produkcji zwierzęcej. 5. Metody higienizacji gnojowicy na cele rolnicze. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The animal manure may be a source of many pathogenic microorganisms, including Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica or Campylobacter spp. The agricultural utilization of slurry poses a serious threat related to the transfer of pathogens to the environment. Some of the bacterial strains are antibiotic-resistant and their resistance genes can be transferred horizontally to the soil microflora. In order to avoid the pathogens’ transmission into the environment, different methods of slurry disinfection are necessary. Biological treatment seems to be the most common technique of slurry hygienization. Storage, anaerobic digestion, aeration or composting may result in effective reduction of pathogen level and guarantee biosafety of slurry application as soil fertilizer. Physical and chemical methods are not commonly used due to their reduced effectiveness in slurry decontamination and relatively high costs.

1. Introduction. 2. Microflora of slurry 3. The possibility of microbial contamination of the environment. 4. The problem of antibiotic resistance of strains from animal production. 5. Methods of slurry hygienization for agricultural purposes. 6. Summary

Leukocydyna Panton-Valentine – aspekty znane i nieznane

Panton-Valentine leukocidin – known and unknown aspects
J. Karakulska, P. Nawrotek, K. Fijałkowski

1. Wstęp. 2. Struktura toksyny PVL. 3. Geny PVL i regulacja ich ekspresji. 4. Mechanizm działania toksyny PVL. 5. Znaczenie kliniczne szczepów produkujących toksynę PVL. 6. Badania na modelach zwierzęcych. 7. Metody detekcji toksyny PVL. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a two component pore-forming cytotoxin composed of LukS-PV and LukF-PV subunits, which mainly acts on mammalian neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. The mechanism of action of PVL and its role in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections are still poorly understood. In vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of PVL (formation of pores in the cell membrane), leading to apoptosis or necrosis of phagocytes. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that, to date, it has not been proven that causing damage to phagocytes is the main function of PVL in vivo. It is known, however, that the concentration of PVL in vivo is not sufficient to induce cytolysis. Furthermore, it has been shown that sublithic concentration of PVL in vivo can activate and intensify bactericidal properties of phagocytes. Nowadays, PVL is epidemiologically linked mainly to community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. There are also available, though very limited, data concerning the isolation of pvl-positive MRSA and MSCNS strains from domestic and farm animals.

1. Introduction. 2. The structure of the PVL toxin. 3. PVL genes and the regulation of their expression. 4. The mechanism of action of PVL toxin. 5. The clinical significance of strains producing PVL toxin. 6. Studies on animal models. 7. PVL toxin detection methods. 8. Summary

Bokawirus człowieka – charakterystyka, chorobotwórczość, występowanie

Human bocavirus – characteristics, pathogenicity, occurrence
E. Abramczuk, K. Pancer, W. Gut, B. Litwińska

1. Wstęp. 2. Epidemiologia zakażeń HBoV. 3. Charakterystyka bokawirusów człowieka 4. Mechanizmy umożliwiające przetrwanie genomu HBoV w zakażonej komórce. 5. Odpowiedź immunologiczna na zakażenie HBoV. 6. Laboratoryjna diagnostyka zakażeń bokawirusami. 7. Bokawirusy a zakażenia mieszane. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: In this article, the characteristics of human Bocaviruses (HBoV) are presented. The viruses were described for the first time in 2005. The symptoms of HBoV infection are: cough, coryza, sore throat, breathing difficulty, but also nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Four types of Bocaviruses are associated with human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. HBoV1 is the main etiologic agent of respiratory tract infections, whereas HBoV2 causes gastrointestinal diseases. Bocaviruses can cause mild, asymptomatic infections as well as severe respiratory diseases, like pneumonia and bronchiolitis. HBoV2 is the third agent, after Rotaviruses and Astroviruses, which causes acute gastroenteritis in children. The treatment of HBoV infections is usually symptomatic The HBoV diagnosis is mainly based on molecular technics, such as quantitative PCR, serological tests are only used for epidemiological purposes. Infections due to HBoV occur during the whole human life, but they are most frequent in children from 6 month- to 3 year-old. HBoV infections are commonall over the world and, when detected, in Poland too. Infections occur throughout the year, but are most common in the winter season. The high rate of co-detection of HBoV with other viruses has been reported (82% samples). HBoV2 is the most frequently identified virus in co-infections with Noroviruses, Rotaviruses and Astroviruses, while HBoV1 – with RSV and HMPV.

1. Introduction. 2. Epidemiology of HBoV infections. 3. Characteristics of human bocavirus. 4. Mechanisms allowing survival of the genome HBoV in the infected cell. 5. The immune response to infection of HBoV. 6. Laboratory diagnostic HBoV infections. 7. Bocaviruses andco-infections. 8. Summary

Współzakażenie HGV/GBV-C i HIV: epidemiologia, patogeneza i konsekwencje kliniczne zakażenia

HGV/GBV-C and HIV coinfection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical consequences of infection
N. B. Kubisa, M. Radkowski

1. Epidemiologia zakażeń HGV/GBV-C i HIV. 2. Współzakażenie HGV/GBV-C i HIV jako wynik wspólnych dróg zakażeń. 3. Analiza porównawcza budowy wirusów. 4. Kliniczne aspekty zakażenia. 5. Patogeneza współzakażenia HGV/GBV-C i HIV. 5.1.Tropizm. 5.2. Rola E2 i NS5A HGV/GBV-C w przebiegu zakażenia HIV. 5.3. Wpływ HGV/GBV-C na poziom ekspresji receptorów CCR5 i CXCR4 oraz wydzielanie cytokin. 6. Wpływ leczenia interferonem na zakażenie HGV/GBV-C. 7. HAART u pacjentów współzakażonych HGV/GBV-C i HIV. 8. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Recent studies showed that HGV/GBV-C infection may exert a beneficial effect on the course of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection in coinfected patients. It was found that CD4+ cell number is higher and progression to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is slower in coinfected patients as compared to HIV infected subjects. HGV/GBV-C infection is not associated with hepatitis, but can be responsible for development of some lymphoproliferative disease. HGV/GBV-C and HIV share common features, in particular: they are tropic for cells of the immune system, their genetic material consist of RNA and both circulate as quasispecies. HGV/GBV-C and HIV are transmitted through infected blood, sexually and vertically. The proposed mechanisms of HGV/GBV-C influence on HIV infection are based on the same tropism to immune cells and direct competition on the cellular level. It was observed that HGV/GBV-C can affect cytokine level, reduce expression of CCR5 and CXCR4, E2 and NS5A HGV/GBV-C proteins have inhibitory effect on HIV replication. Currently, there is no specific treatment directed against HGV/GBV-C infection, however, it is possible to analyze results of antiviral treatment in case of patients coinfected with HGV/GBV-C, HCV or HIV. HAART (high-activity antiretroviral therapy) and interferon α therapy are commonly used in these patients, but the effect of antiviral therapy on HGV/GBV-C remains unclear.

1. Epidemiology of HGV/GBV-C and HIV infection. 2. HGV/GBV-C and HIV coinfection as a result of common routes of transmission. 3. Comparative analysis of the structure of viruses. 4. Clinical aspects of infection. 5. Pathogenesis of HGV/GBV-C and HIV coinfection. 5.1. Tropism. 5.2. Role of E2 and NS5A HGV/GBV-C in the course of HIV infection. 5.3. Influence of HGV/GBV-C on CCR5 and CXCR4 expression and cytokines level. 6. Influence of interferon therapy on HGV/GBV-C infection. 7. HAART in patients with HGV/GBV-C and HIV coinfection. 8. Summary

Nanotechnologia w mikrobiologii – wybrane aspekty

Nanotechnology in microbiology – selected aspects
P. Nawrotek, A. Augustyniak

1. Wstęp. 2. Charakterystyka nanomateriałów. 3. Zastosowanie nanomateriałów w mikrobiologii. 4. Nanomateriały pochodzenia mikrobiologicznego. 5. Oddziaływanie nanomateriałów na mikroorganizmy środowiskowe. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Microbiology plays an important role in nanotechnology, especially that the natural environment (particularly soil) is considered to be the main reservoir of modern molecular nanomaterials, which may influence its inhabitants – microorganisms. Variety of shapes, sizes and properties predestine nanomaterials for tools in the development of many life aspects and associated disciplines, including medicine, agriculture and biotechnology. At the same time, the present knowledge regarding consequences of the interaction between, e.g., environmental microorganisms and nanomaterials (such as silica nanospheres, carbon nanotubes, or graphene oxide flakes modified with titanium dioxide, copper or silver) seems to be insufficient. It is problematic to predict distant outcome and significance of the exposition to such nanostructures. Therefore, it is fundamental to describe the interactions between nanomaterials and living organisms, including bacteria and fungi, which constitute the first barrier between the nanotechnological products and the natural environment. Undertaking the steps for health and environment protection is particularly required when nanomaterials are used for agrotechnical purposes, e.g., exploitation of nanomaterials-containing fertilisers. On the other hand, there are new possibilities of the nanomaterials production with the use of appropriate bacteria. Furthermore, it appears that microorganisms may be stimulated by the nanomaterials to overcome certain problems in the industrial processes.

1. Introduction. 2. Characterization of nanomaterials 3. Application of nanomaterials in microbiology 4. Nanomaterials of microbiological origin 5. Effect of nanomaterials on environmental microorganisms 6. Summary

Najnowszy numer

Najnowszy numer

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2018, 57, 2

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.