All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

MIKROBIOM CZŁOWIEKA – ZDROWIE I CHOROBA

Human microbiome – health and disease
M. Binek

1. Wstęp. 2. Techniki wykorzystywane do badań mikrobiomu. 3. Poznanie mikrobiomu człowieka w projekcie NIH. 4. Inne korzyści wynikające z realizacji projektu. 5. Jelitowy mikrobiom człowieka. 6. Skład i funkcja mikrobiomu na podstawie badań metagenomowych. 7. Mikrobiota a zachowanie homeostazy. 8. Mikrobiom a indukcja odpowiedzi poszczepiennej. 9. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Commensal microorganisms are known to colonize and form complex communities (microbiome) at various sites within the mammalian body. Because the human microbiome has the potential to affect so many aspects of human health, it has recently become the focus of a series of international human microbiome projects. Such studies are expected to lead to understanding of the impact of microbiota on human health and disease. Recent advances in sequencing technology have opened an entirely new arena in the research of diverse human microbiomes (the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms). In 2007 the National Institutes of Health launched the Human Microbiome Project to study the human microbiom broadly by examining at least four body sites i.e. gastrointestinal tract, the mouth, the vagina, and the skin. The primary goal of this project is to characterize the human microbiome and determine changes in the microbiome correlated to specific disease states. High-throughput sequencing is used to produce microbiome sequence data of samples from normal and diseased donors. Progress to date includes more than 1000 commensal bacteria genomes that have been completed and deposited in GenBank. In recent years, special attention has been paid to the ability of microbiota to modulate the expression of host genes. This is phenomenon forms part of the „cross-talk process” that takes place between the host and its indigenous microbiota. Studies on human intestinal microbiota suggest that host epithelials cell can express specific glycoconjugates in response to the presence of bacteria. Therefore, the gut microflora is responsible for modifying potential sites for attachment. This could be a selective advantage when competing with other bacteria for a niche with limited resources. The mucosal immune system has developed specialized regulatory, anti-inflammatory mechanisms for eliminating pathogens and tolerating commensal microorganisms. Toll-like receptors mediate recognition of microbial patterns to eliminate pathogens. In contrast, commensal bacteria exploit the TLR pathway to actively suppress immunity in order to establish host-microbial symbiosis. Activating anti-inflammatory response in the host via pattern recognition receptor signaling maintains homeostasis. Moreover, it has been shown that the intestinal microbiota composition exerts an effect on the development of immune response to certain vaccine antigens. Thus microbiota along with host human cells form a complex ecosystem which, as a whole interactively performs various biological processes. Their genomes are tightly linked forming an integral part of common metagenome.

1. Introduction. 2. Techniques for the study of human microbiome. 3. The NIH human microbiome project. 4. Additional advantages of launching the human microbiome Project. 5. Human intestinal microbiota. 6. Quality and function of microbiota based on metagenomics sequence data. 7. Microbiota and maintenance of homeostasis. 8. Does the microbiome affect the efficacy of vaccines? 9. Conclusions

CHOROBY SERCA JAKO PÓŹNE POWIKŁANIA ZAKAŻEŃ ODZWIERZĘCYCH PRZENOSZONYCH PRZEZ KLESZCZE

Heart disease as a late complications of zoonosis transmitted by a ticks
I. Mączka, S. Tylewska -Wierzbanowska
1. Wstęp. 2. Bartoneloza. 3. Borelioza z Lyme. 4. Gorączka Q. 5. Riketsjoza. 6. Diagnostyka. 7. Leczenie. 8. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Many bacterial species can be a cause of various heart diseases. The pathogens that trigger these disorders are very often fastidious, uncultured bacteria, such as: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. The following symptoms: myocarditis, endocarditis, pancarditis, perimyocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), conduction and rhythm disturbances and atherosclerotic, cardiovascular and valvular disease may indicate a bacterial etiology of the disease. Detection of significant titers of specific antibodies allows to identify the origin of the disease. A research performed recently has shown the presence of Bartonella spp., B. afzeli and C. burnetii bacteria in malfunctioning human hearts. It indicates that these pathogens, occur ring in the natural environment in ticks and other wild animals, play a significant role in constation of cardiovascular diseases.
1. Introduction. 2. Bartonellosis. 3. Lyme borreliosis. 4. Q fever. 5. Rickettsial disease. 6. Diagnostics. 7. Treatment. 8. Summary

ZAKAŻENIA BARTONELLA SPP. ZE SZCZEGÓLNYM UWZGLĘDNIENIEM CHORÓB OCZU

Bartonella spp. infections with particular emphasis on eye diseases
B. Fiecek, T. Chmielewski, S. Tylewska - Wierzbanowska
1. Wstęp. 2. Bartonella sp. – wewnątrzkomórkowy patogen. 3. Chorobotwórczość bakterii Bartonella sp. dla zwierząt. 4. Chorobotwórczość Bartonella sp. dla ludzi. 4.1. Bartonella henselae – patogen wywołujący choroby oczu. 5. Podsumowanie
Abstract: Bartonellosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella which are transmitted by vectors such as feas, lice and ticks. It causes mainly cat scratch disease (CSD), but also endocarditis, meningitis, peliosis hepatitis, bacillary angiomatosis and pneumonia. It has been established that about 5–25% of infections caused by Bartonella spp. may have a form of infammatory process within the eyeball. Tese diseases include optic neuritis, anterior uveitis, focal retinal vasculitis or focal choroiditis, lesions in the optic disc region, infammation of the vitreous and the branch retinal arteriolar or venular occlusions. Ophthalmic bartonellosis should be particularly suspected in patients who have contact with a cat and develop a sudden fever with loss of vision.
1. Introduction. 2. Bartonella sp. intracellular pathogen. 3. Pathogenicity of Bartonella sp. in animals. 4. Pathogenicity Bartonella sp. in people. 4.1. Bartonella henselae a pathogen causing eye diseases. 5. Summary

PROBIOTYCZNE BAKTERIE FERMENTACJI MLEKOWEJ (LAB)

Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
J. Gajewska, M. K. Błaszczyk
1. Wstęp. 2. Mikroorganizmy probiotyczne i ich cechy. 3. Cechy fizjologiczno-biochemiczne LAB. 4. pH wewnątrzkomórkowe LAB. 5. Potencjał oksydoredukcyjny bakterii mlekowych. 6. Fermentacje węglowodanów i produkcja kwasu mlekowego. 7. Wielkości genomów LAB. 8. Metabolizm azotowy LAB. 9. Metabolizm innych związków. 10. Polisacharydy produkowane przez LAB. 11. Podsumowanie
Abstract: The authors present physiological and biochemical properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It is surprising that despite LAB multiple auxotrophy (they lack certain metabolic pathways and grow on full media only), they are not pathogens but probiotic microorganisms producing bacteriocins. A list of probiotic bacteria is not long and including mainly lactic acid bacteria. Their metabolic properties (hydrocarbonate fermentation, transformation of protein substrates, exopolysaccharide production) are explaited in food production and preservation.
1. Introduction. 2. Probiotic microorganisms and their abilities. 3 Short physiological and biochemic characteristics of LAB. 4. Intracellular pH of lactic acid bacteria. 5. Redox potential of LAB. 6. Carbohydrates fermentation and lactic acid production. 7. Genomes sizes of LAB. 8. Nitrogen metabolism. 9. Metabolism of other compounds. 10. Polysaccharides produced by LAB. 10. Summary

NOWOCZESNE TECHNIKI MIKROSKOPOWE I BIOLOGII MOLEKULARNEJ W OCENIE GRANULOWANEJ BIOMASY

New microscopic and molecular biology techniques in the evaluation of granular biomass
B. Kończak, J. Karcz, K. Miksch
1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Polimery zewnątrzkomórkowe. 2.1. Charakterystyka EPS z wykorzystaniem nowoczesnych technik mikroskopowych. 2.2. Analiza składu białek zewnątrzkomórkowych z wykorzystaniem technik i SDS-PAGE. 3. Charakterystyka granul. 3.1. Charakterystyka kanałów i porów z wykorzystaniem techniki CLSM. 3.2. Dystrybucja mikropopulacji w granuli z   wykorzystaniem mikroskopii fluorescencyjnej. 3.3. Dystrybucja mikro-populacji w granuli z wykorzystaniem techniki PCR-DGGE. 4. Podsumowanie
Abstract: The aerobic granular activated sludge process is a promising technology for compact wastewater treatment plants. This system is superior to conventional activated sludge processes in terms of high biomass retention, high conversion capacity, less biomass production, excellent settleabilty and resistance to inhibitory and toxic compounds. The majority of research on granular sludge has focused on optimization of engineering aspects related to reactor operation with little emphasis on fundamental microbiology. The combination of physico-chemical characteristics of granular sludge and the new microbiological methods may provide conceptual information benefiting start-up procedures for full-scale granular-sludge reactors. This article presents a short review of microbiological fingerprinting techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), SDS-PAGE or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and other techniques such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) or confocal microscopy (CLSM) to give additional information about the structure and bacterial composition of granules.
1. Introduction. 2. Extracellular polymeric substances. 2.1. Characterization of EPS by new microscopic techniques. 2.2. Analysis of exoprotein composition by SDS-PAGE technique. 3.  Characterization of granules. 3.1. Characterization of canales and pores by CLSM. 3.2. Distribution of micro-population in granule by +uorescent microscopy. 3.3. Distribution of micro-population in granule by PCR-DGGE technique. 4. Summary

Najnowszy numer

Najnowszy numer

POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2018, 57, 1

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.