All posts by Postępy Mikrobiologii

ZANIECZYSZCZENIA MIKROBIOLOGICZNE PODZIEMNYCH MAGAZYNÓW GAZU I GAZOCIĄGÓW

Microbiological contaminations of underground gas storage facilities and natural gas pipelines
Agnieszka Staniszewska, Alina Kunicka-Styczyńska, Krzysztof Ziemiński

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Drobnoustroje w podziemnych magazynach gazu. 3. Mikroorganizmy w gazociągach. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The growing demand for natural gas is primarily due to an increase in the share of gas in electricity production. Replacing coal with natural gas results in a significant decrease in emissions of greenhouse gases and dusts. The presence of microorganisms may be the cause of underground gas storage (UGS) facilities and pipelines deterioration. Microorganisms and their metabolic products contribute to the formation of sudden and unexpected failure causing loss of energy security by: decline in the quality of stored gas or disruption of its transmission. The paper presents a variety of microbiomes of the underground storage facilities and pipelines, showing that not only the sulfate-reducing bacteria are able to grow and develop in these extreme environments. Microorganisms producing CH4 may change the composition of the gas, and the produced H2S and CO2 are not only gas pollutants, but also generate corrosion of transmission networks. At the same time, the presence of bacteria and archaea in pipelines hinders the correct operation of the network, through the accumulation of biofilm and reduction in the pipe diameter.

Introduction. 2. Microorganisms in underground gas storage facilities. 3. Microorganisms in natural gas pipelines. 4. Summary

ZMIENNOŚĆ GENETYCZNA WIRUSA BIEGUNKI BYDŁA I CHOROBY BŁON ŚLUZOWYCH

Genetic diversity of bovine diarrhea and mucosal disease virus
Paweł Mirosław, Aleksandra Antos, Mirosław Polak

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Charakterystyka wirusa BVD. 3. Zróżnicowanie genetyczne. 4. Znaczenie zmienności genetycznej. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as a member of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV is one of the most important viral pathogens of ruminants worldwide, causing severe economic losses. Infection results in a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild respiratory disease to fetal death and mucosal disease. The virus particles are small and contain a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule of approximately 12.3 kb with one large open reading frame flanked by two untranslated regions (5’UTR and 3’UTR). The polyprotein is proteolytically cleaved by viral and host proteases resulting in the formation of mature viral proteins. It is well established that BVDV strains show considerable genetic diversity. BVD viruses are classified as two species: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. Quite recently, a new putative species, BVDV-3, was detected. The viruses exist as one of two biotypes: cytopathic or non-cytopathic, based on their activity in cell cultures. The phylogenetic analysis of the 5’UTR and Npro region has revealed at least 21 distinct subtypes of BVDV-1 and 4 subtypes of BVDV-2. Genetic diversity of BVD viruses has serious clinical implications such as immune evasion, increase of virulence, host range alteration and also affects the efficacy of vaccination programmes and diagnostic methods.

1. Introduction. 2. Characteristics of BVD virus. 3. Genetic diversity. 4. The importance of genetic variation. 5. Conclusion

ZABÓJCZE DROBNOUSTROJE – MIKROORGANIZMY WYKORZYSTYWANE JAKO BROŃ BIOLOGICZNA

Deadly microbes – microbes used as a biological weapon
Karol Abramczyk, Anna Gałązka

1. Wstęp. 2. Wąglik (Bacillus anthracis). 2.1. Patogenność Bacillus anthracis. 2.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie wąglika. 3. Dżuma (Yersinia pestis). 3.1. Patogenność Yersinia pestis. 3.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie dżumy. 4. Tularemia (Francisella tularensis). 4.1. Patogenność Francisella tularensis. 4.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie tularemii. 5. Wirus Ebola. 5.1. Patogenność wirusa Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease – EVD). 5.2. Diagnostyka i leczenie gorączki krwotocznej EVD. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Due to the development of civilization, people’s needs and expectations increase. The global development of civilization, the desire of some countries to expand their borders and achieve a higher political, social and military influence, cause insecurity among the people. Security is one of the main factors for the proper functioning of individuals and whole societies. Currently, a major threat to people is terrorism. Especially dangerous is the use of biological weapons for this purpose, which significantly interferes with a sense of security and restricts the freedom of human activities. Currently, biological terrorism is a global threat associated with the use of weapons for political or religious reasons. The threat from radical religious fundamentalists is particularly dangerous. The most common biological threat agents are microorganisms causing zoonoses, i.e. diseases which can be transmitted from animals to humans. The most dangerous are Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis. They are characterized by high virulence, ease of spread and the possibility to obtain and use them at low cost. The aim of this paper is to characterize, based on the available literature, the most dangerous microorganisms which pose a potential threat to humans as biological warfare. The article also provides basic information on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by pathogens which can be used in a bioterrorist attack.

1. Introduction. 2. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). 2.1. Pathogenicity of anthrax. 2.2. Diagnosis and treatment of anthrax. 3. Plague (Yersinia pestis). 3.1. Pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis. 3.2. Diagnosis and treatment of plague. 4. Tularemia (Francisella tularensis). 4.1. Pathogenicity of Francisella tularensis. 4.2. Diagnosis and treatment of Francisella tularensis. 5. Ebola virus. 5.1. Pathogenicity of Ebola virus. 5.2. Diagnosis and treatment of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). 6. Summary

NIEKONWENCJONALNE DROŻDŻE METSCHNIKOWIA PULCHERRIMA I ICH ZASTOSOWANIE W BIOTECHNOLOGII

Non-conventional yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima and its application in biotechnology
Ewelina Pawlikowska, Dorota Kręgiel

1. Wstęp. 2. Taksonomia. 3. Ekologia. 4. Morfologia i fizjologia. 5. Cykl paraseksualny. 6. Metschnikowia pulcherrima – aktywność biochemiczna oraz potencjał aplikacyjny. 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Metschnikowia spp. are extensively studied “non-conventional” yeasts. Strains belonging to these genera are considered as non-pathogenic and safe. The unique properties of Metschnikowia spp. allow us to look at these microorganisms as a promising subject for evolutionary genetics, taxonomy, ecology, as well as a natural biocontrol agent in biotechnology. This article provides a synthesis of the systematics, morphology, ecology and physiology of Metschnikowia spp., with special attention to M. pulcherrima. These yeasts are able to produce a number of important metabolites, including organic acids, aroma compounds, oil or pulcherrimic acid. In addition, this review discusses possible applications of these non-conventional yeasts in biotechnology.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy. 3. Ecology. 4. Morphology and physiology. 5. Parasexual cycle. 6. Metschnikowia pulcherrima – biochemical activity and application potential. 7. Summary

METABOLITY BAKTERII KWASU MLEKOWEGO I ICH ZASTOSOWANIE W PRZEMYŚLE

Metabolites of lactic acid bacteria – overview and industrial applications
Katarzyna Ratajczak, Agnieszka Piotrowska-Cyplik

1. Wstęp. 2. Bakterie kwasu mlekowego. 2.1. Homofermentacja. 2.2. Heterofermentacja. 3. Metabolity bakterii kwasu mlekowego. 3.1. Kwasy organiczne. 3.2. Diacetyl. 3.3. Nadtlenek wodoru. 3.4. Dwutlenek węgla. 3.5. Bakteriocyny. 3.5.1. Charakterystyka bakteriocyn. 3.5.2. Klasyfikacja bakteriocyn. 3.5.3. Problemy w zastosowaniu bakteriocyn w przemyśle spożywczym. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria are one of the most commonly found microorganisms in food. One of the reasons behind their popularity are their probiotic properties. Lactic acid bacteria produce a wide range of metabolites which often find use as antimicrobial agents or preservatives. The efficacy and efficiency of these compounds are vastly different. The most promising group of lactic acid bacteria metabolites are bacteriocins. However, there are crucial issues with the application of bacteriocins in the food industry. The goal of this study was to provide an overview of the lactic acid bacteria metabolites most commonly used in industry.

1. Introduction. 2. Lactic acid bacteria. 2.1. Homofermentation. 2.2. Heterofermentation. 3. Metabolites of lactic acid bacteria. 3.1. Organic acids. 3.2. Diacetyl. 3.3. Hydrogen peroxide. 3.4. Carbon dioxide. 3.5. Bacteriocins. 3.5.1. Characteristics of bacteriocins. 3.5.2. Classification of bacteriocins. 3.5.3. Issues with the application of bacteriocins in the food industry. 4. Conclusion

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POSTĘPY MIKROBIOLOGII
2017, 56, 4

O Towarzystwie

PTM

Celem Polskiego Towarzystwa
Mikrobiologów jest propagowanie rozwoju nauk mikrobiologicznych

i popularyzowanie osiągnięć
mikrobiologii wśród członków Towarzystwa oraz szerokich kręgów społeczeństwa. Formami działalności jest organizowanie zjazdów, posiedzeń naukowych, kursów, wykładów
i odczytów oraz konkursów prac naukowych; wydawanie i popieranie wydawania czasopism naukowych, książek
i innych publikacji
z dziedziny mikrobiologii; opiniowanie o stanie i potrzebach mikrobiologii polskiej

i występowanie w jej sprawach wobec
władz państwowych; współpraca
z pokrewnymi stowarzyszeniami
w kraju i za granicą.